Chanos chanos, Milkfish : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, bait

Chanos chanos (Forsskål 1775)

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Chanos chanos   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Chanos chanos
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Gonorynchiformes (Milkfish) 鼠□目 (Milkfish) > Chanidae (Milkfish) 遮目魚科 (Milkfish)
Etymology: Chanos: Greek, chanos, -eos, ous, and chasma, -atos = abyss, mouth opened, inmensity (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 非產卵性溯降河的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - 30 m (Ref. 6898), usually ? - 15 m (Ref. 89972).   熱帶; 15°C - 43°C (Ref. 43081); 46°N - 52°S, 19°E - 77°W

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: along continental shelves and around islands, where temperatures are greater than 20°C. Red Sea and South Africa to Hawaii and the Marquesas, north to Japan, south to Victoria, Australia. Eastern Pacific: San Pedro, California to the Galapagos.
印度-太平洋: 沿著大陸棚與島的周圍, 在哪裡溫度是大於 20個 ° C. 紅海與南非至夏威夷與馬可薩斯島,北至日本, 南至澳洲維多利亞省。 東太平洋: 加州的聖貝多羅到加拉巴哥島。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 91.8, range 68 - 70 cm
Max length : 180 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 9710); 124.0 cm SL (female); common length : 100.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 9814); 最大體重: 14.0 kg (Ref. 9814); 最大年齡: 15 年 (Ref. 9814)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 2; 背的軟條 (總數): 13-17; 臀棘 2; 臀鰭軟條: 8 - 10; 脊椎骨: 46. This species is characterized by the following: body elongate and somewhat compressed; mouth small and toothless; single dorsal about mid-level of the body; pectoral fins falcate; caudal fin large and deeply forked; no scutes on belly; branchiostegal rays 4. Colour of the body olive green dorsally; flanks silvery; unpaired fins with dark margins (Ref. 49, 117228).
表面地與 bonefishes 相似但是藉著進化更先進的藉著具有 4個鰓條骨.(參考文獻 1602) 顎無齒的.(參考文獻 12693)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults are found in offshore marine waters and shallow coastal embayments, but also frequently enter estuaries and occasionally penetrate freshwater streams (Ref. 44894, 52331). They occur in small to large schools near the coasts or around islands where reefs are well developed. Eggs and larvae are pelagic up to 2-3 weeks. Older larvae migrate onshore and settle in coastal wetlands (mangroves, estuaries) during the juvenile stage, or occasionally enter freshwater lakes. Juveniles and sub-adults return to sea where they mature sexually. Mature adults spawn only in fully saline water. Larvae eat zooplankton; juveniles and adults eat cyanobacteria, soft algae, small benthic invertebrates, and even pelagic fish eggs and larvae. Larvae are collected from rivers and are grown in culture ponds into juveniles which are marketed fresh, smoked, canned or frozen. Brood stocks can be raised and spawned in captivity to produce larvae in the hatchery (Ref. 12868). This species can thrive and grow in water as hot as 32° C (Ref. 9987).

發現於外海海洋與水淺的沿岸海灣., 也時常進入河口而且偶然地深入淡水溪流.(參考文獻 44894) 進入河口與河的一個海洋的種.(參考文獻 52331) 大洋底棲性魚種在單一 20 公尺的.(參考文獻 58302) 成魚在海岸的附近或島的周圍形成小到大群體在哪裡礁石發展完好。 卵與仔魚是大洋性的達到 2-3個星期。 較舊的仔魚在幼齡期的時候向陸地移動而且停駐於沿岸濕地 (紅樹林, 河口), 或者偶然地進入淡水湖泊。 稚魚與亞成魚返回大海在那裡它們成熟的性。 產卵只在純海水中。 仔魚吃浮游動物; 稚魚與成魚吃藍綠藻,軟的藻類,小型底棲的無脊椎動物, 甚至大洋性魚卵與仔魚。 仔魚是被從河川中收集而且成長於養殖池到稚魚期, 那是在市場上銷售生鮮、煙燻、罐裝及冷凍。 窩分枝能被蓄養和產卵在繁殖場在孵卵所生產仔魚。 (參考文獻 12868) 能在水熱到 32個 ° C 中繁榮而且生長。 (參考文獻 9987)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawns in clear shallow waters above a bottom of sand or coral and at a distance of not more than 30 km from the shore. Females spawn up to 5 million eggs which hatch in about 24 hr. The larvae seek out clear coastal and estuarine waters warmer than 23°C with 10-32 salinity and abundant phytoplankton. Spawning and fertilization take place at night.印度-太平洋: 沿著大陸棚與島的周圍, 在哪裡溫度是大於 20個 ° C. 紅海與南非至夏威夷與馬可薩斯島,北至日本, 南至澳洲維多利亞省。 東太平洋: 加州的聖貝多羅到加拉巴哥島。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Bagarinao, T., 1994. Systematics, distribution, genetics and life history of milkfish, Chanos chanos. Environ. Biol. Fishes 39(1):23-41. (Ref. 9814)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 23 June 2016

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated




漁業: 高經濟性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 誘餌: usually
FAO(養殖: 產生, 魚種描繪; 漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋



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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 20.7 - 29.2, mean 28.2 °C (based on 4182 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00654 - 0.01108), b=3.06 (2.98 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.4   ±0.20 se; based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (tm=4-8; tmax=15; Fec=200,000).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 3 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.