Chanos chanos, Milkfish : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, bait

Chanos chanos (Forsskål 1775)

Milkfish
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Chanos chanos   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Chanos chanos (Milkfish)
Chanos chanos
Picture by Randall, J.E.

التصنيف / Names الأسماء الشائعة | مرادفات | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Gonorynchiformes (Milkfish) > Chanidae (Milkfish)
Etymology: Chanos: Greek, chanos, -eos, ous, and chasma, -atos = abyss, mouth opened, inmensity (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range البيئة

; بحري; المياه العذبة; مياه مخلوطة قاعية التغذية و المعيشة; مهاجرة بين الياه الملحه و الحلوة لكن ليس للتزاوج (Ref. 51243); نطاق العمق 1 - 30 m (Ref. 6898), usually ? - 15 m (Ref. 89972).   Tropical; 15°C - 43°C (Ref. 43081); 46°N - 52°S, 19°E - 77°W

التوزيع دول | مناطق الفاو | النظام البيئي | الظهور | Point map | مقدمة | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: along continental shelves and around islands, where temperatures are greater than 20°C. Red Sea and South Africa to Hawaii and the Marquesas, north to Japan, south to Victoria, Australia. Eastern Pacific: San Pedro, California to the Galapagos.

Length at first maturity / الحجم / وزن / العمر

Maturity: Lm 91.8, range 68 - 70 cm
Max length : 180 cm SL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 9710); 124.0 cm SL (female); common length : 100.0 cm SL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 9814); أعلا وزن تم نشرة: 14.0 kg (Ref. 9814); العمر: 15 سنين (Ref. 9814)

وصف مختصر الوصف الخارجي | قياسات المظهر الخارجي

الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 2; الأشعة الظهرية الناعمة (المجموع): 13-17; شوكة شرجية 2; أشعه شرجية لينه: 8 - 10; فقرات: 46. This species is characterized by the following: body elongate and somewhat compressed; mouth small and toothless; single dorsal about mid-level of the body; pectoral fins falcate; caudal fin large and deeply forked; no scutes on belly; branchiostegal rays 4. Colour of the body olive green dorsally; flanks silvery; unpaired fins with dark margins (Ref. 49, 117228).

أحياء     المصطلحات (على سبيل المثال epibenthic)

Adults are found in offshore marine waters and shallow coastal embayments, but also frequently enter estuaries and occasionally penetrate freshwater streams (Ref. 44894, 52331). They occur in small to large schools near the coasts or around islands where reefs are well developed. Eggs and larvae are pelagic up to 2-3 weeks. Older larvae migrate onshore and settle in coastal wetlands (mangroves, estuaries) during the juvenile stage, or occasionally enter freshwater lakes. Juveniles and sub-adults return to sea where they mature sexually. Mature adults spawn only in fully saline water. Larvae eat zooplankton; juveniles and adults eat cyanobacteria, soft algae, small benthic invertebrates, and even pelagic fish eggs and larvae. Larvae are collected from rivers and are grown in culture ponds into juveniles which are marketed fresh, smoked, canned or frozen. Brood stocks can be raised and spawned in captivity to produce larvae in the hatchery (Ref. 12868). This species can thrive and grow in water as hot as 32° C (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior النضج | التكاثر | وضع البيض | بيض | الخصوبة | Larvae

Spawns in clear shallow waters above a bottom of sand or coral and at a distance of not more than 30 km from the shore. Females spawn up to 5 million eggs which hatch in about 24 hr. The larvae seek out clear coastal and estuarine waters warmer than 23°C with 10-32 salinity and abundant phytoplankton. Spawning and fertilization take place at night.

المرجع الرئيسي Upload your references | مراجع | المنظم | المتعاونين

Bagarinao, T., 1994. Systematics, distribution, genetics and life history of milkfish, Chanos chanos. Environ. Biol. Fishes 39(1):23-41. (Ref. 9814)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 23 June 2016

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر للأنسان

  Harmless





استخدامات بشرية

مصائد: ذو قيمة تاجرية عالية; الأستزراع المائي: تجاري; لعبة سمكه: نعم; طعم: usually
FAO(الأستزراع المائي: الأنتاج, ملف الأنواع; مصائد: الأنتاج; publication : search) | FishSource | البحر حولنا

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مصادر علي الأنترنت

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 20.7 - 29.2, mean 28.2 °C (based on 4182 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00654 - 0.01108), b=3.06 (2.98 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
مستوى غذائي (Ref. 69278):  2.4   ±0.20 se; based on food items.
المرونه (Ref. 120179):  منخفض, الحد الزمني الأدني لتضاعف عدد أفراد المجتمع 4.5-14 سنة (tm=4-8; tmax=15; Fec=200,000).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 3 stock assessments.
عرضة للخطر (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .
فئة السعر (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.