分類 / Names
共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes(部類, 種) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
(Carps) > Xenocyprididae
(East Asian minnows)
Etymology: Ctenopharyngodon: Greek, kteis, ktenos = comb + Greek, pharyngx = pharynx + greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335); idella: Cteno=comb; pharynx=throat; odon=tooth (in reference to its comblike pharyngeal teeth); and idella: presumably derived from the Greek idios, distinctive or peculiar (Ref. 79012).
More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 新鮮な水; 汽水性の 底生の漂泳性; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 0 - 30 m (Ref. 6898). Subtropical; 0°C - 35°C (Ref. 52059); 50°N - 23°N, 100°E - 142°E (Ref. 48)
Asia: Eastern China and Russia (Ref. 48) in eastern Siberia, Amur River system (Ref. 1441). Widely transported around the world (Ref. 7248). Persists only in Europe by stocking (Ref. 59043). Introductions often brought with it the parasitic tapeworm Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis (synonym of B. acheilognathi) (Ref. 12217). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm 68.2, range 58 - 79.2 cm
Max length : 150 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 30578); common length : 10.7 cm SL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 35840); 最大公表体重: 45.0 kg (Ref. 7248); 最大記録サイズ: 21 年 (Ref. 48)
背面の脊椎 (合計): 3; 背鰭 (合計): 7-8; 肛門の骨 3; 臀鰭: 7 - 11. No barbels. Snout very short, its length less than or equal to eye diameter. Postorbital length more than half head length (Ref. 4967). 18 soft rays for caudal fin (Ref. 40476). Diagnosed from rather similar species Mylopharyngodon piceus by having the following characters: body olive to brassy green above, silvery white to yellow below; body cylindrical; pharyngeal teeth laterally compressed, serrated, with a groove along grinding surface, usually in two rows, 2,5-4,2 (Ref. 59043).
Adults occur in lakes, ponds, pools and backwaters of large rivers (Ref. 5723), preferring large, slow-flowing or standing water bodies with vegetation. Tolerant of a wide range of temperatures from 0° to 38°C, and salinities to as much as 10 ppt and oxygen levels down to 0.5 ppm. Feed on higher aquatic plants and submerged grasses; takes also detritus, insects and other invertebrates. One of the world's most important aquaculture species and also used for weed control in rivers, fish ponds and reservoirs (Ref. 9987). Spawn on riverbeds with very strong current (Ref. 30578). Utilized also fresh and eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9987). Considered as a pest in most countries because of the damages made to submerged vegetation (Ref. 43281).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
Spawns in gravel bottomed areas of rivers (Ref. 48). Eggs are pelagic and hatch while drifting downstream in 2-3 days (Ref. 59043).
Shireman, J.V. and C.R. Smith, 1983. Synopsis of biological data on the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1884). FAO Fish. Synop. No.135, 86 p. (Ref. 48)
水産業: 少数商業の; 水産養殖: 商業; ゲームフィッシュ: はい
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00815 - 0.01118), b=3.07 (3.03 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 低い, ４．５年～１４年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.13-0.19; tm=2-10; tmax=21; Fec=50,000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 21.4 [8.2, 69.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1 [0, 2] mg/100g ; Protein = 17 [15, 19] % ; Omega3 = 0.577 [0.253, 1.336] g/100g ; Selenium = 38.4 [12.3, 88.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16 [3, 85] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.573 [0.244, 1.973] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.