Ctenopharyngodon idella, Grass carp : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844)

Grass carp
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Ctenopharyngodon idella
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رده بندی / Names اسامي عام | مترادف | Catalog of Fishes(جنس, گونه ها) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Cypriniformes (Carps) > Xenocyprididae (East Asian minnows)
Etymology: Ctenopharyngodon: Greek, kteis, ktenos = comb + Greek, pharyngx = pharynx + greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335);  idella: Cteno=comb; pharynx=throat; odon=tooth (in reference to its comblike pharyngeal teeth); and idella: presumably derived from the Greek idios, distinctive or peculiar (Ref. 79012).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range بوم شناسي

; آب شيرين; لب شور موجوداتی که در محدوده وسیعی از آبهای آزاد از نزدیک بستر و یا روی کف بستر، در قسمت های میان آبی تا سطح آب و در برخی گونه ها با قابلیت پرواز، زندگی و تغذیه می کنند.; رود رو (Ref. 51243); تغييرات عمق 0 - 30 m (Ref. 6898).   Subtropical; 0°C - 35°C (Ref. 52059); 50°N - 23°N, 100°E - 142°E (Ref. 48)

پراكنش كشورها | مناطق سازمان خوار و بار جهاني (FAO) | Ecosystems | ظهور | Point map | معرفي | Faunafri

Asia: Eastern China and Russia (Ref. 48) in eastern Siberia, Amur River system (Ref. 1441). Widely transported around the world (Ref. 7248). Persists only in Europe by stocking (Ref. 59043). Introductions often brought with it the parasitic tapeworm Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis (synonym of B. acheilognathi) (Ref. 12217). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / سن

Maturity: Lm ?, range 58 - 79.2 cm
Max length : 150 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 30578); common length : 10.7 cm SL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 35840); بيشينه وزن گزارش شده: 45.0 kg (Ref. 7248); بيشينه سن گزارش شده: 21 سال ها (Ref. 48)

توصيف مختصر ريخت شناسي | ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري

خارهاي باله پشتي (کل): 3; شعاع نرم باله پشتي (کل): 7-8; خارهاي باله مخرجي 3; شعاع نرم باله مخرجي: 7 - 11. No barbels. Snout very short, its length less than or equal to eye diameter. Postorbital length more than half head length (Ref. 4967). 18 soft rays for caudal fin (Ref. 40476). Diagnosed from rather similar species Mylopharyngodon piceus by having the following characters: body olive to brassy green above, silvery white to yellow below; body cylindrical; pharyngeal teeth laterally compressed, serrated, with a groove along grinding surface, usually in two rows, 2,5-4,2 (Ref. 59043).

زيست شناسي     واژه نامه (بعنوان مثال epibenthic)

Adults occur in lakes, ponds, pools and backwaters of large rivers (Ref. 5723), preferring large, slow-flowing or standing water bodies with vegetation. Tolerant of a wide range of temperatures from 0° to 38°C, and salinities to as much as 10 ppt and oxygen levels down to 0.5 ppm. Feed on higher aquatic plants and submerged grasses; takes also detritus, insects and other invertebrates. One of the world's most important aquaculture species and also used for weed control in rivers, fish ponds and reservoirs (Ref. 9987). Spawn on riverbeds with very strong current (Ref. 30578). Utilized also fresh and eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9987). Considered as a pest in most countries because of the damages made to submerged vegetation (Ref. 43281).

Life cycle and mating behavior بلوغ | تولید مثل | تخم ریزی | تخم ها | Fecundity | توزاد ( لارو)

Spawns in gravel bottomed areas of rivers (Ref. 48). Eggs are pelagic and hatch while drifting downstream in 2-3 days (Ref. 59043).

مآخذ اصلی Upload your references | مراجع | هماهنگ كننده | همكاران

Shireman, J.V. and C.R. Smith, 1983. Synopsis of biological data on the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1884). FAO Fish. Synop. No.135, 86 p. (Ref. 48)

وضعيت در فهرست قرمز IUCN (Ref. 123251)

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر برای انسان ها

  Potential pest

استفاده انسانی

ماهي گيري – شيلات: ارزش تحاري اندك; آبزي پروري: تجاري; ماهي ها ي سرگرم كننده: بله
FAO - آبزي پروري: production, نمايه گونه; ماهي گيري – شيلات: landings; Publication: search | FishSource |


گزارش های ويژه

بارگيری XML

منابع اينترنتي

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00813 - 0.01122), b=3.07 (3.02 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.00 se; based on food items.
جهندگی (Ref. 120179):  پايين ، كم, كمينه زمان لازم براي دو برابر شدن جمعيت 5/4 – 14 سال (K=0.13-0.19; tm=2-10; tmax=21; Fec=50,000).
آسيب پذيری (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) .
طبقه قيمت (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 21.4 [8.2, 69.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1 [0, 2] mg/100g ; Protein = 17 [15, 19] % ; Omega3 = 0.577 [0.253, 1.336] g/100g ; Selenium = 38.4 [12.3, 88.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16 [3, 85] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.573 [0.244, 1.973] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.