Rostroraja alba, White skate : fisheries, gamefish

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Rostroraja alba (Lacepède, 1803)

White skate
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Rostroraja alba   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Rostroraja alba (White skate)
Rostroraja alba
Picture by Østergaard, T.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鳃亚纲 (鲨鱼与 鱼) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates) > Rajinae
Etymology: Rostroraja: Latin, rostrum = beak + Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Lacepède.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 居于水底的; 深度上下限 30 - 600 m (Ref. 6808), usually 50 - 500 m (Ref. 26999).   亞熱帶的; 56°N - 37°S, 19°W - 23°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Ireland and England southward round the Cape (South Africa) to central Mozambique (Ref. 5578), including western Mediterranean (to Tunisia and western Greece).
東大西洋: 愛爾蘭與英格蘭在南方的沿著海岬 (南非) 到莫三比克中部 (參考文獻 5578), 包括地中海西部 (到突尼西亞與希臘西部).

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 230 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 11284); 202.0 cm TL (female)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

A giant skate with a broad-based, abruptly narrow-tipped snout covered with small, sharp thorns; pectoral disc angular, and no thorns on nape or back, but three rows of large thorns on tail (Ref. 5578). Larger immature and adult individuals grey with numerous small white spots above, underside white with no black pores; hatchlings plain reddish-brown above, often with blue spots, and white below with broad dusky grey margins on disc (Ref. 5578).
一个庞大的 鱼具有一个基底宽的, 覆盖着小且利的刺顶端非常窄的吻; 胸盘有角的, 与没有在后颈或背面上的刺, 但是三列的在尾部上的大的刺.(参考文献 5578) 比较大的不成熟的与成鱼个体灰色的有很多的白色小斑点上方, 腹面白色的具有没有黑色的孔; 人工孵化出之鱼苗背面全红褐色的, 时常有蓝色的斑点, 与腹面白色的在体盘上有宽的暗灰色的边缘.(参考文献 5578)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabit shelf and slope waters (Ref. 4426). Found on sand and rock-sand bottom (Ref. 6808). A bottom-predator of bony fishes, other elasmobranchs, fish offal, crabs, shrimps, mysids, octopi, and cuttlefish (Ref. 5578). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 4426. Maximum length for female is 202 cm (Ref. 41333). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 12.5-18.3 cm long and 10.0-13.9 cm wide (Ref. 41250). About 55-156 eggs are produced per individual annually (Ref. 41250).

栖息于大陆架及大陆斜坡水域。 (参考文献 4426) 栖息于沙子与岩石了-砂质底部.(参考文献 6808) 一底层掠食动物捕食硬骨鱼类,其他的板鳃类,鱼碎肉,螃蟹,虾,糠虾,章鱼与墨鱼.(参考文献 5578) 最小深度报告取自参考文献 4426. 最大的母鱼体长是 202 公分。 (参考文献 41333) 卵生的。 明显的成对出现。 幼鱼可能倾向跟随大的个体, 例如他们的母亲.(参考文献 205) 卵为长方形鞘囊具有僵硬的触角沈积在沙滩或泥滩的角落.(参考文献 205) 卵鞘是 12.5-18.3 公分长与 10.0-13.9 公分宽的.(参考文献 41250) 大约 55-156个卵每年每个体生产。 (参考文献 41250)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Eggs are laid in huge cases and take up to 18 months to hatch (Ref. 5578). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).東大西洋: 愛爾蘭與英格蘭在南方的沿著海岬 (南非) 到莫三比克中部 (參考文獻 5578), 包括地中海西部 (到突尼西亞與希臘西部).

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : McEachran, John | 合作者

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  濒危 (EN) (A2cd+4cd); Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  引起创伤的 (Ref. 5578)





人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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特别资料

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网络资源

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(基因组, 核苷酸) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia(转至, 搜寻) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 8.8 - 17.5, mean 13.5 (based on 474 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00295 (0.00169 - 0.00516), b=3.20 (3.05 - 3.35), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.83 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (Fec=55).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (84 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.