Epinephelus multinotatus, White-blotched grouper : fisheries

Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters, 1876)

White-blotched grouper
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Epinephelus multinotatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus multinotatus (White-blotched grouper)
Epinephelus multinotatus
Picture by Field, R.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Peters.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 礁区鱼类; 深度上下限 1 - 110 m (Ref. 89707).   熱帶; 30°N - 27°S, 33°E - 136°E

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Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf to southern Mozambique and eastward to Western Australia. Not known from the Red Sea.
印度洋: 波斯灣到莫三比克南部與向東至西澳大利亞。 已知不來自紅海。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 50 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5222); common length : 75.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5450); 最大体重: 9.0 kg (Ref. 3132)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 11; 背的软条 (总数): 15-17; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: color is dark purplish gray with scattered irregular whitish spots and blotches which are faint or absent in preserved fish; ctenoid body scales except cycloid dorsoanteriorly below anterior half of spinous dorsal fin, thorax, abdomen and above anterior anal fin; body with numerous auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.5-3.0 in SL; slightly emarginate to truncate caudal fin; short pelvic fins, 1.7-2.3 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.4-2.7 times in SL; distinctly convex interorbital, slightly convex dorsal head profile; subangular preopercle, shallow notch just above the angle, serrae at angle not or slightly enlarged; upper edge of operculum straight; posterior nostrils of adults is twice the size of anterior nostrils; maxilla reaches vertical at rear edge of eye or thereabouts; ventral edge of maxilla of adults with distinct step distally; 2 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).
色彩是深色的带紫色的灰色有分散的不规则的微白色的斑点与斑块那是模糊的或者不存在于保存的标本。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabit clear to turbid water in shallow as well as deep water (Ref. 4787). Juveniles are found in inshore coral reefs (Ref. 5222). They feed in water to more than 100 m depth (Ref. 27275). It has been suggested that juveniles mimic the herbivorous damselfish Neopomacentrus sindensis, presumably to get closer to their unsuspecting prey (Ref. 5222, 9710). Feed on small fishes and crabs. Probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so (Ref. 27352). Eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic (Ref. 6390). Solitary (Ref 90102).

在浅滩中栖息于清澈至浑浊的水以及深水域.(参考文献 4787) 稚鱼被发现于近萨达姆瑚礁。 (参考文献 5222) 他们在水到超过 100 公尺深中觅食。 (参考文献 27275) 它有被显示出拟态被可能的食草的雀鲷 辛德新雀鲷[Neopomacentrus sindensis] 的稚鱼更靠近他们的未察觉猎物.(参考文献 5222,9710) 捕食小鱼与螃蟹。 在限制的期间可能产卵而且形成鱼群当这么做的时候.(参考文献 27352) 卵与初生仔鱼可能大洋性。 (参考文献 6390)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Rock cod are protogynous hermaphrodites.印度洋: 波斯灣到莫三比克南部與向東至西澳大利亞。 已知不來自紅海。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 21 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性
FAO(渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.7 - 29.2, mean 27.3 (based on 386 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00566 - 0.01612), b=3.01 (2.87 - 3.15), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.67 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 4.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.27).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 1 stock assessment.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.