Epinephelus multinotatus, White-blotched grouper : fisheries
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Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters, 1876)

White-blotched grouper
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Epinephelus multinotatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus multinotatus (White-blotched grouper)
Epinephelus multinotatus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Peters.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 礁區魚類; 深度上下限 1 - 110 m (Ref. 89707).   熱帶; 30°N - 27°S, 33°E - 136°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf to southern Mozambique and eastward to Western Australia. Not known from the Red Sea.
印度洋: 波斯灣到莫三比克南部與向東至西澳大利亞。 已知不來自紅海。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 50 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5222); common length : 75.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5450); 最大體重: 9.0 kg (Ref. 3132)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 11; 背的軟條 (總數): 15-17; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: color is dark purplish gray with scattered irregular whitish spots and blotches which are faint or absent in preserved fish; ctenoid body scales except cycloid dorsoanteriorly below anterior half of spinous dorsal fin, thorax, abdomen and above anterior anal fin; body with numerous auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.5-3.0 in SL; slightly emarginate to truncate caudal fin; short pelvic fins, 1.7-2.3 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.4-2.7 times in SL; distinctly convex interorbital, slightly convex dorsal head profile; subangular preopercle, shallow notch just above the angle, serrae at angle not or slightly enlarged; upper edge of operculum straight; posterior nostrils of adults is twice the size of anterior nostrils; maxilla reaches vertical at rear edge of eye or thereabouts; ventral edge of maxilla of adults with distinct step distally; 2 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).
色彩是深色的帶紫色的灰色有分散的不規則的微白色的斑點與斑塊那是模糊的或者不存在於保存的標本。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabit clear to turbid water in shallow as well as deep water (Ref. 4787). Juveniles are found in inshore coral reefs (Ref. 5222). They feed in water to more than 100 m depth (Ref. 27275). It has been suggested that juveniles mimic the herbivorous damselfish Neopomacentrus sindensis, presumably to get closer to their unsuspecting prey (Ref. 5222, 9710). Feed on small fishes and crabs. Probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so (Ref. 27352). Eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic (Ref. 6390). Solitary (Ref 90102).

在淺灘中棲息於清澈至混濁的水以及深水域.(參考文獻 4787) 稚魚被發現於近海珊瑚礁。 (參考文獻 5222) 他們在水到超過 100 公尺深中覓食。 (參考文獻 27275) 它有被顯示出擬態被可能的食草的雀鯛 辛德新雀鯛〔Neopomacentrus sindensis〕 的稚魚更靠近他們的未察覺獵物.(參考文獻 5222,9710) 捕食小魚與螃蟹。 在限制的期間可能產卵而且形成魚群當這麼做的時候.(參考文獻 27352) 卵與初生仔魚可能大洋性。 (參考文獻 6390)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Rock cod are protogynous hermaphrodites.印度洋: 波斯灣到莫三比克南部與向東至西澳大利亞。 已知不來自紅海。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 21 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性
FAO(漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.7 - 29.2, mean 27.3 (based on 386 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00566 - 0.01612), b=3.01 (2.87 - 3.15), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.67 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 4.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.27).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 1 stock assessment.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.