Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino; acqua dolce; salmastro demersale; amfidromo (Ref. 46888); distribuzione batimetrica - 15 m (Ref. 45332), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 8°C - 24°C (Ref. 4944); 60°N - 12°N, 32°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: western Scotland to Senegal. Also known from the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Indian Ocean: as lessepsian migrant in the Gulf of Eilat and Red Sea (Ref. 5299). Records from Pointe Noire and vicinity might be doubtful.
Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 6 - 7 cm
Max length : 13.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 49698); Età massima riportata: 10 anni (Ref. 35388)
Neck naked. No black spots in the front end of each dorsal fin (Ref. 35388).
Predominantly marine, but may enter freshwater. Adults occur inshore in intertidal waters, under stones and in pools on sheltered rocky shores with much weed cover. Macrobenthos feeder on hard substrates (Ref. 92840), they feed on crustaceans (larger amphipods, isopods, small crabs) and polychaetes; juveniles eat harpacticoid copepods, amphipods, polychaetes and mites (Ref. 4696). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Fusiform shaped eggs are found in patches of several thousand on undersurface of stones, shells, polychaete tubes or Ciona mantles (Ref. 4696).
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Male guards the eggs deposited by the female under rocks or inside empty bivalve shells until they hatch (Ref. 45332). Larvae remain near the substrate until they assume the cryptobenthic behavior of the adults (Ref. 45332). Are repeat spawners (Ref. 4696).
Maugé, L.A., 1986. Gobiidae. p. 358-388. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4343)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale; Acquario: Acquari pubblici
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.8 - 20.2, mean 17.7 °C (based on 823 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00695 - 0.01196), b=3.09 (3.05 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (K=0.41; tm=0-3; tmax=10; Fec=1,054).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 276 [116, 610] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.18 [1.17, 4.30] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.5 [15.7, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.804 [0.348, 1.863] g/100g ; Selenium = 24.3 [8.1, 55.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 18.3 [5.2, 58.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.54 [0.95, 2.58] mg/100g (wet weight);