Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 20 - 1000 m (Ref. 6302). Deep-water; 75°N - 30°N, 28°W - 46°E (Ref. 54568)
Eastern Atlantic: south-western Barents Sea to Strait of Gibraltar including the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Reported from Iceland (Ref. 4712) and Mauritania (Ref. 5377). North Atlantic specimens attain larger sizes than those collected off West Africa and they also occur in shallower depths.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 35 - 60 cm
Max length : 200 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4712); common length : 100.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4712); max. published weight: 57.7 kg (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 24 years (Ref. 46508)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 9 - 10. Peritoneum pale. Head and body depressed. Mouth wide and cavernous. Skin thin and loose, scales absent. Esca bifid, 2 broad, flattened , leaf-like blades. Dorsal spines long, stout and bearing many well-developed tendrils; 4th spine greater than snout width (Ref. 4712).
Occurs on sandy and muddy bottoms from the coast (below 20 m, Ref. 12382) down to depths of 1,000 m. May also be found on rocky bottoms (Ref. 12382). It lies half-buried in the sediment waiting for its prey. It attracts prey by means of its fishing filament (Ref. 5377). Feeds mainly on fishes, occasionally sea-birds. Marketed fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, sautéed, broiled, boiled, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). It is a well-studied species in Europe and is sold without the skin and the head under the name 'queue de Lotte' (Ref. 5377). Does not adapt well in home aquariums due to its large size (Ref. 12382).
Caruso, J.H., 1986. Lophiidae. p. 1362-1363. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, Volume 3. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 4712)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.8 - 14.2, mean 7.7 °C (based on 468 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.01362 - 0.02217), b=2.90 (2.83 - 2.97), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 12.2 (8.5 - 14.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 12 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.07-0.33; tm=4.5-14; tmax=24; Fec=1 million).
Prior r = 0.48, 95% CL = 0.32 - 0.72, Based on 7 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100) .