分類 / Names
俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(屬, 種) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性. 1°C - 17°C (Ref. 59043)
Eurasia: Northern and northwestern Caspian Sea; enters Volga, Ural, Emba, Terek and Kura drainages for spawning.
大小 / 重量 / 年齡
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59043); 最大體重: 2.0 kg (Ref. 59043); 最大年齡: 10 年 (Ref. 59043)
型態特徵 | 形態測量圖
Can be diagnosed from its congeners in Caspian Sea basin by having the following characters: 39-48 (usually 42-44) scales along the lateral line; body laterally compressed, depth 24-37% SL; dorsal fin usually with 9½ branched rays; anal fin usually with 10½ branched rays; mouth subterminal; snout rounded; iris silvery grey; pectoral pelvic and anal fins grey with dark margins (sometimes slightly red in autumn, outside spawning season); breeding males with fine, scattered tubercles on top and side of head (Ref. 59043)
A semi-anadromous species which occurs mostly in shallow brackish coastal waters. During summer at the sea, adults are most abundant at water depth of 2.5-4.0 m and salinity of 2-4 ppt. Enters freshwater of estuaries, lagoons and lower reaches of large rivers to spawn. In rivers, juveniles take plankton (mostly Cladocera) and small benthic animals as food. At the sea, they feed on oligochaetes, chironomid larvae and algae. Adults also prey on crustaceans, worms and chironomids larvae. Spawns on shallow shores of coastal lakes and flooded areas. After spawning adult move back to the sea to join groups of immature juveniles, not traveling for long distances, staying in areas with high abundance of prey. Larvae migrate to the sea (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | 卵 | 孕卵數 | 仔魚
Deposits sticky eggs among plants. An annual spawner, but some females spawn only every second year (Ref. 59043)
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
合作者照片Stamps, Coins Misc.聲音神經毒速度泳型鰓區Otoliths腦重體重比眼睛色素
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00367 - 0.01569), b=3.13 (2.96 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
營養階層 (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (tm=2-5).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .