Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; sötvatten; brackvatten bentopelagisk. Subtropical
Europe and Asia: freshened areas of Black and Azov Seas, entering Don, Kuban, Dniepr, Dniestr and rarely Danube drainages.
Size / Vikt / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm SL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 59043)
Morfologi | Morfometri
Diagnosed from its congeners in Black Sea basin by having the combination of the following characters: laterally compressed body; 39-41 + 2-3 scales along lateral line; dorsal and anal fins usually with 10½ branched rays; mouth inferior; iris from silvery to yellow; pectoral, pelvic and anal fins grey with dark margins; and breeding males with scattered tubercles on head and a tubercle on each flank scale (Ref. 59043).
A semi-anadromous species. Occurs mostly in shallow brackish coastal waters. While at sea, adults are most abundant at depth of 2.5-4.0 m and salinity of 2-4 ppt. Enters freshwater of estuaries, lagoons and lower reaches of large rivers to spawn. Commences movement to coast in August and to rivers in September, with a peak in October. Stops migration by end of November and overwinters in main river or estuaries. Continues spawning migration with breaking up of ice in March (Dniepr). Breeds in April-May. Adults migrate back to estuaries to forage immediately after spawning. Juveniles move to estuaries during first summer in August. Reported decline was due to blocking of almost all spawning rivers and decline of brackish areas in Black Sea basin (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Könsmognad | Reproduktion | Lek | Ägg | Fecundity | Larver
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
PopulärnamnsynonymerMetabolikPredatorerEkotoxikologiReproduktionKönsmognadLekSpawning aggregationFecundityÄggEgg development
MedarbetareBilderStamps, Coins Misc.LjudCiguateraHastighetSimsättGälytaOtolithsHjärnstorlekSyn
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00340 - 0.01618), b=3.13 (2.94 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resiliens (Ref. 120179
): Låg, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid 4,5-14 år (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .