Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822)

Orange-spotted grouper
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Epinephelus coioides   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Hamilton.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水 礁区鱼类; 深度上下限 1 - 100 m (Ref. 167).   亞熱帶的; 37°N - 34°S, 28°E - 180°E (Ref. 5222)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea south to at least Durban, South Africa and eastward to Palau and Fiji, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819) and Australia. Recently reported from the Mediterranean coast of Israel (Ref. 5222). Frequently misidentified as Epinephelus tauvina or Epinephelus malabaricus (Ref. 27362).
印度-西太平洋: 紅海南至至少南非的德爾班與向東至帛琉與斐濟, 北至琉球群島, 南至阿拉弗拉海 (參考文獻 9819) 與澳洲。 最近記錄自以色列的地中海海岸。 (參考文獻 5222) 時常被誤鑑成 鱸滑石斑魚〔Epinephelus tauvina〕 瑪拉巴石斑魚〔Epinephelus malabaricus〕 了。 (參考文獻 27362)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 48.3, range 25 - 30 cm
Max length : 120 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 47613); 最大体重: 15.0 kg (Ref. 11228); 最大年龄: 22 年 (Ref. 3627)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 11; 背的软条 (总数): 13-16; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: elongated body with greatest body depth at 2.9-3.7 in SL (for specimens 10-78 cm SL); head length 2.3-2.6 in SL. interorbital width 5.0-6.2 in HL; preopercle with enlarged serrae at angle and a broad shallow notch just above angle; upper edge of operculum straight or somewhat convex; maxilla reaches to or slightly past a vertical at rear edge of eye; upper jaw length 17-20% of SL; midlateral part of lower jaw with 2-3 rows of subequal teeth; gill rakers of first gill arch 8-10 + 14-17; pyloric caeca 50-60; lateral body scales rough, with minute auxiliary scales (body scales ctenoid except for nape, back, thorax, abdomen and above anal-fin base with cycloid scales); lateral-line scales 58-65; lateral-line tubes of anterior scales branched in adults. Colour: head and body tan dorsally, shading to whitish ventrally; numerous small brownish orange or reddish brown spots on head, body, and median fins; body with 5 faint, irregular, oblique, dark bars which bifurcate ventrally (irregular H-shaped bars); back with 3-4 blackish saddles; orange spots become poorly defined and darker with growth (Ref. 39231, 90102).
小的个体在鳍上非常近似 E. tauvina E. malabaricus, 但是有橘色的斑点而且缺乏六角形的斑点。 (参考文献 37816)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabit turbid coastal reefs (Ref. 9710) and are often found in brackish water (Ref. 27362) over mud and rubble (Ref. 6390). Solitary (Ref 90102). Juveniles are common in shallow waters of estuaries over sand, mud and gravel and among mangroves (Ref. 6390). Feed on small fishes, shrimps, and crabs. Probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so (Ref. 27352). Females mature at 25 to 30 cm (2 to 3 years old), and sexual transition occurs at 55 to 75 cm (Ref. 39231). Eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic (Ref. 6390). Has been tested in several countries as a potential species for mariculture (Ref. 43448). Caught with hook-and-line, traps, trawls, and lift nets. Common and expensive in markets of the region; sold fresh and kept alive at restaurants in Asian countries (e.g. Hong Kong and Taiwan Province of China) (Ref. 39231).

栖息于混浊的岸礁 (参考文献 9710) 而且时常被发现于在泥与碎石上的半淡咸水 (参考文献 27362).(参考文献 6390) 稚鱼常见于在沙子,泥与砾石上的河口的浅水域与在红树林之中.(参考文献 6390) 捕食小鱼,虾与螃蟹。 在限制的期间可能产卵而且形成鱼群当这么做的时候.(参考文献 27352) 卵与初生仔鱼可能大洋性。 (参考文献 6390) 曾经在一些国家测试对于海洋生物养殖作为一个潜在的种.(参考文献 43448)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Pelagic spawner (Ref. 32184).印度-西太平洋: 紅海南至至少南非的德爾班與向東至帛琉與斐濟, 北至琉球群島, 南至阿拉弗拉海 (參考文獻 9819) 與澳洲。 最近記錄自以色列的地中海海岸。 (參考文獻 5222) 時常被誤鑑成 鱸滑石斑魚〔Epinephelus tauvina〕 瑪拉巴石斑魚〔Epinephelus malabaricus〕 了。 (參考文獻 27362)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 21 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 商业性
FAO(养殖: 产生, 物种外形; 渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
参考文献
养殖
养殖信息
品种
遗传学
基因序列
遗传率
疾病
加工
Mass conversion
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声音
神经毒
速度
泳型
鳃区
Otoliths
脑重体重比
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.4 - 29.1, mean 28.1 (based on 2094 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.01025 - 0.01347), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 7.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.17; tm=2-3; tmax=22; Fec=43,618).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 1 stock assessment.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   High.