Epinephelus coioides, Orange-spotted grouper : fisheries, aquaculture

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Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822)

Orange-spotted grouper
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Epinephelus coioides   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Hamilton.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 礁區魚類; 深度上下限 1 - 100 m (Ref. 167).   亞熱帶的; 37°N - 34°S, 28°E - 180°E (Ref. 5222)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea south to at least Durban, South Africa and eastward to Palau and Fiji, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819) and Australia. Recently reported from the Mediterranean coast of Israel (Ref. 5222). Frequently misidentified as Epinephelus tauvina or Epinephelus malabaricus (Ref. 27362).
印度-西太平洋: 紅海南至至少南非的德爾班與向東至帛琉與斐濟, 北至琉球群島, 南至阿拉弗拉海 (參考文獻 9819) 與澳洲。 最近記錄自以色列的地中海海岸。 (參考文獻 5222) 時常被誤鑑成 鱸滑石斑魚〔Epinephelus tauvina〕 瑪拉巴石斑魚〔Epinephelus malabaricus〕 了。 (參考文獻 27362)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 48.3, range 25 - 30 cm
Max length : 120 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 47613); 最大體重: 15.0 kg (Ref. 11228); 最大年齡: 22 年 (Ref. 3627)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 11; 背的軟條 (總數): 13-16; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: elongated body with greatest body depth at 2.9-3.7 in SL (for specimens 10-78 cm SL); head length 2.3-2.6 in SL. interorbital width 5.0-6.2 in HL; preopercle with enlarged serrae at angle and a broad shallow notch just above angle; upper edge of operculum straight or somewhat convex; maxilla reaches to or slightly past a vertical at rear edge of eye; upper jaw length 17-20% of SL; midlateral part of lower jaw with 2-3 rows of subequal teeth; gill rakers of first gill arch 8-10 + 14-17; pyloric caeca 50-60; lateral body scales rough, with minute auxiliary scales (body scales ctenoid except for nape, back, thorax, abdomen and above anal-fin base with cycloid scales); lateral-line scales 58-65; lateral-line tubes of anterior scales branched in adults. Colour: head and body tan dorsally, shading to whitish ventrally; numerous small brownish orange or reddish brown spots on head, body, and median fins; body with 5 faint, irregular, oblique, dark bars which bifurcate ventrally (irregular H-shaped bars); back with 3-4 blackish saddles; orange spots become poorly defined and darker with growth (Ref. 39231, 90102).
小的個體在鰭上非常近似 E. tauvina E. malabaricus, 但是有橘色的斑點而且缺乏六角形的斑點。 (參考文獻 37816)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabit turbid coastal reefs (Ref. 9710) and are often found in brackish water (Ref. 27362) over mud and rubble (Ref. 6390). Solitary (Ref 90102). Juveniles are common in shallow waters of estuaries over sand, mud and gravel and among mangroves (Ref. 6390). Feed on small fishes, shrimps, and crabs. Probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so (Ref. 27352). Females mature at 25 to 30 cm (2 to 3 years old), and sexual transition occurs at 55 to 75 cm (Ref. 39231). Eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic (Ref. 6390). Has been tested in several countries as a potential species for mariculture (Ref. 43448). Caught with hook-and-line, traps, trawls, and lift nets. Common and expensive in markets of the region; sold fresh and kept alive at restaurants in Asian countries (e.g. Hong Kong and Taiwan Province of China) (Ref. 39231).

棲息於混濁的岸礁 (參考文獻 9710) 而且時常被發現於在泥與碎石上的半淡鹹水 (參考文獻 27362).(參考文獻 6390) 稚魚常見於在沙子,泥與礫石上的河口的淺水域與在紅樹林之中.(參考文獻 6390) 捕食小魚,蝦與螃蟹。 在限制的期間可能產卵而且形成魚群當這麼做的時候.(參考文獻 27352) 卵與初生仔魚可能大洋性。 (參考文獻 6390)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Pelagic spawner (Ref. 32184).印度-西太平洋: 紅海南至至少南非的德爾班與向東至帛琉與斐濟, 北至琉球群島, 南至阿拉弗拉海 (參考文獻 9819) 與澳洲。 最近記錄自以色列的地中海海岸。 (參考文獻 5222) 時常被誤鑑成 鱸滑石斑魚〔Epinephelus tauvina〕 瑪拉巴石斑魚〔Epinephelus malabaricus〕 了。 (參考文獻 27362)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 21 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性
FAO(養殖: 產生, 魚種描繪; 漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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孕卵數

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.4 - 29.1, mean 28.1 (based on 2094 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.01025 - 0.01347), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 7.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.17; tm=2-3; tmax=22; Fec=43,618).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 1 stock assessment.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   High.