Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Malabar grouper
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Epinephelus malabaricus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus malabaricus (Malabar grouper)
Epinephelus malabaricus
Picture by De Vroe, J.

Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinônimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas; estuarina associadas(os) a recifes; anfídromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 0 - 150 m (Ref. 5222).   Tropical; 30°N - 32°S, 29°E - 173°W (Ref. 5222)

Distribuição Países | Áreas da FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Tonga, north to Japan, south to Australia. It is not known from the Persian Gulf, where the closely related Epinephelus coioides is common.

Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 64.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 234 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 5213); common length : 100.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 5213); peso máx. publicado: 150.0 kg (Ref. 9710)

Descrição suscinta Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 11; Raios dorsais (total): 14-16; Espinhos anais 3; Raios anais : 8. Characterized by light grey to yellowish brown color; five slightly oblique dark brown bars that bifurcate ventrally; numerous small black spots and blotches in head and body; ctenoid scales on body except cycloid anterodorsally on body, thorax and abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 3.0-3.6 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 2.0-2.6 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.3-2.6 times in SL; snout length 1.7-2.0 times in upper jaw length; interorbital width 4.5-6.5 times in HL and 2.1-3.0 times in upper jaw length; flat or slightly convex interorbital area; subangular preopercle, with enlarged serrae at the angle; almost straight upper edge of operculum; subequal posterior and anterior nostrils, except in large adults which have the posterior nostrils slightly larger; maxilla reaches to or past vertical at rear edge of orbit, maxilla width 4.5-6.5% of SL; upper jaw length 17-22% of SL, 2-5 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).

Biologia     Glossário (p.ex. epibenthic)

A common species found in a variety of habitats: coral and rocky reefs, tide pools, estuaries, mangrove swamps and sandy or mud bottom from shore to depths of 150 m. Solitary (Ref 90102). Juveniles found near shore and in estuaries; sex reversal probable; catch statistics poor being previously confused with E. andersoni (Ref. 4332). Feed primarily on fishes and crustaceans, and occasionally on cephalopods (Ref. 9710). Present in Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Widely used in mariculture mainly in the Far East (Ref. 43448).

Ciclo de vida ou comportamento de acasalamento Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Colaboradores

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 120744)

  Segura ou pouco preocupante (LC) ; Date assessed: 18 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para os humanos

  Harmless





Uso pelos humanos

Pescarias: altamente comercial; Aquacultura: espécies comerciais; peixe esportivo: sim
FAO(Aquacultura: produção; ; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.3 - 29.1, mean 28 (based on 2428 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00809 - 0.01870), b=3.05 (2.93 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.61 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 1.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  Baixo, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 4,5 - 14 anos (Fec = 51,087).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Very high.