Epinephelus malabaricus, Malabar grouper : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

You can sponsor this page

Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Malabar grouper
Beobachtung melden im Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Epinephelus malabaricus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Hochladen Photos und videos
Pictures | Videos |     Google Bild
Image of Epinephelus malabaricus (Malabar grouper)
Epinephelus malabaricus
Picture by De Vroe, J.

Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Strahlenflosser) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ökologie

; seewasser; brackwasser riff-verbunden; amphidrom (Ref. 51243); tiefenbereich 0 - 150 m (Ref. 5222).   Tropical; 30°N - 32°S, 29°E - 173°W (Ref. 5222)

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Tonga, north to Japan, south to Australia. It is not known from the Persian Gulf, where the closely related Epinephelus coioides is common.

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm 64.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 234 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 5213); common length : 100.0 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 5213); max. veröff. Gewicht: 150.0 kg (Ref. 9710)

Kurzbeschreibung Morphologie | Morphometrie

Rückenflossenstacheln (insgesamt): 11; Rückenflossenweichstrahlen (insgesamt): 14-16; Afterflossenstacheln 3; Afterflossenweichstrahlen: 8. Characterized by light grey to yellowish brown color; five slightly oblique dark brown bars that bifurcate ventrally; numerous small black spots and blotches in head and body; ctenoid scales on body except cycloid anterodorsally on body, thorax and abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 3.0-3.6 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 2.0-2.6 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.3-2.6 times in SL; snout length 1.7-2.0 times in upper jaw length; interorbital width 4.5-6.5 times in HL and 2.1-3.0 times in upper jaw length; flat or slightly convex interorbital area; subangular preopercle, with enlarged serrae at the angle; almost straight upper edge of operculum; subequal posterior and anterior nostrils, except in large adults which have the posterior nostrils slightly larger; maxilla reaches to or past vertical at rear edge of orbit, maxilla width 4.5-6.5% of SL; upper jaw length 17-22% of SL, 2-5 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

A common species found in a variety of habitats: coral and rocky reefs, tide pools, estuaries, mangrove swamps and sandy or mud bottom from shore to depths of 150 m. Solitary (Ref 90102). Juveniles found near shore and in estuaries; sex reversal probable; catch statistics poor being previously confused with E. andersoni (Ref. 4332). Feed primarily on fishes and crustaceans, and occasionally on cephalopods (Ref. 9710). Present in Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Widely used in mariculture mainly in the Far East (Ref. 43448).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Partner

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 120744)

  nicht bedroht (LC) ; Date assessed: 18 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

  Harmless





Nutzung durch Menschen

Fischereien: hoch kommerziell; Aquakultur: kommerziell; Sportfisch: ja
FAO(Aquakultur: production; ; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Mehr Information

Namen
Synonyme
Metabolismus
Räuber
Ökotoxikologie
Fortpflanzung
Geschlechtsreife
Ablaichen
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eier
Eientwicklung
Alter/Größe
Wachstum
Länge-Gewicht
Länge-Länge
Längenhäufigkeiten
Morphometrie
Morphologie
Larven
Larven Pop.Dyn.
Rekrutierung
Dichte
Referenzen
Aquakultur
Aquakultur Profil
Zuchtlinien
Genetik
Allel-Häufigkeiten
Vererbbarkeit
Krankheiten
Verarbeitung
Mass conversion
Partner
Bilder
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Laute
Ciguatera
Geschwindigkeit
Schwimmstil
Kiemenoberfläche
Otoliths
Gehirngröße
Sehfähigkeit

Tools

Zusatzinformationen

Download XML

Internet Quellen

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.3 - 29.1, mean 28 (based on 2428 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00809 - 0.01870), b=3.05 (2.93 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.61 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 1.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 120179):  niedrig, Verdopplung der Population dauert 4,5 - 14 Jahre. (Fec = 51,087).
Verwundbarkeit (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Preiskategorie (Ref. 80766):   Very high.