Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Malabar grouper
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Epinephelus malabaricus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus malabaricus (Malabar grouper)
Epinephelus malabaricus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 礁區魚類; 非產卵性溯降河的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 150 m (Ref. 5222).   熱帶; 30°N - 32°S, 29°E - 173°W (Ref. 5222)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Tonga, north to Japan, south to Australia. It is not known from the Persian Gulf, where the closely related Epinephelus coioides is common.
印度-太平洋: 紅海而且東非到東加,北至日本, 南至澳洲。 它是已知不來自接近地講的 點帶石斑〔Epinephelus coioides〕 是普遍的波斯灣。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 64.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 234 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5213); common length : 100.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5213); 最大體重: 150.0 kg (Ref. 9710)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 11; 背的軟條 (總數): 14-16; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8. Characterized by light grey to yellowish brown color; five slightly oblique dark brown bars that bifurcate ventrally; numerous small black spots and blotches in head and body; ctenoid scales on body except cycloid anterodorsally on body, thorax and abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 3.0-3.6 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 2.0-2.6 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.3-2.6 times in SL; snout length 1.7-2.0 times in upper jaw length; interorbital width 4.5-6.5 times in HL and 2.1-3.0 times in upper jaw length; flat or slightly convex interorbital area; subangular preopercle, with enlarged serrae at the angle; almost straight upper edge of operculum; subequal posterior and anterior nostrils, except in large adults which have the posterior nostrils slightly larger; maxilla reaches to or past vertical at rear edge of orbit, maxilla width 4.5-6.5% of SL; upper jaw length 17-22% of SL, 2-5 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

A common species found in a variety of habitats: coral and rocky reefs, tide pools, estuaries, mangrove swamps and sandy or mud bottom from shore to depths of 150 m. Solitary (Ref 90102). Juveniles found near shore and in estuaries; sex reversal probable; catch statistics poor being previously confused with E. andersoni (Ref. 4332). Feed primarily on fishes and crustaceans, and occasionally on cephalopods (Ref. 9710). Present in Hong Kong live fish markets (Ref. 27253). Widely used in mariculture mainly in the Far East (Ref. 43448).

一種常見的種發現於多種棲息地了: 珊瑚礁與岩礁,潮池,河口, 紅樹林沼澤與沙的或來自海岸到深度的泥底 150 公尺。 稚魚發現近岸與在河口; 性別反轉可能的; 漁獲統計不好是先前與 E. andersoni 互相混淆了。 (參考文獻 4332) 主要吃魚與甲殼動物, 與偶然地吃頭足類動.(參考文獻 9710) 在香港活魚販售。 (參考文獻 27253)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

印度-太平洋: 紅海而且東非到東加,北至日本, 南至澳洲。 它是已知不來自接近地講的 點帶石斑〔Epinephelus coioides〕 是普遍的波斯灣。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 18 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(養殖: 產生; ; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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生態毒物學
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孕卵數

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.3 - 29.1, mean 28 (based on 2428 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00809 - 0.01870), b=3.05 (2.93 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.61 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 1.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (Fec = 51,087).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.