Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; laut; air tawar; payau; anadromus (ruaya dari laut ke air tawar) (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman 0 - 50 m (Ref. 189). Subtropical; 42°N - 21°N, 109°E - 134°E (Ref. 189)
Northwest Pacific: Canton north to Ariake Sound, southwestern Japan, including all of Yellow Sea and off western coasts of Korea. Penetrates over 1000 km up the Yangtze River.
Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 41.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 189)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 80. Body tapering, belly rounded before pelvic fins, with 16 to 26 + 25 to 36 = 43 to 61 keeled scutes from isthmus to anus. Maxilla long, reaching to or almost to base of first pectoral fin ray. Pectoral fin with 6 filaments; branched fin rays longer than those of pelvic fin.
Occurs in coastal waters, estuaries and reaching up to middle parts of rivers, apparently able to tolerate freshwater (Ref. 189, 11230). Lives in not really clean water but not really turbid water either (Ref. 12218). Goes to the deep water areas of rivers at night (Ref. 12218). Planktivore (Ref. 12218). Spawns around three times in a lifetime and spawning occurs in between reeds (Ref. 12218). In Ariake Sound, Japan it breeds from May to August, the fishes running about 15 km up the Chikugo River and spawning in freshwater, the spherical eggs floating down and hatching near the river mouth. Its relatively large size makes it a more esteemed food fish than most Coilia. Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).
Spawn in school (Ref. 205).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
ancaman kepada manusia
AcuanBudidaya airprofil budidaya airStrainGenetikaFrekuensi alelDiturunkanPenyakit-penyakitPengolahanMass conversion
mitraGambarStamps, Coins Misc.Suara-suaraCiguateraKecepatanTipe renangArea insangOtolithsOtakPenglihatan / visi
muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 12.3 - 25.2, mean 17.5 (based on 218 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00228 - 0.00605), b=2.93 (2.79 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 3.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (K=0.35; tmax=5).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .