Dicentrarchus labrax, European seabass : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758)

European seabass
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Dicentrarchus labrax   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Dicentrarchus labrax (European seabass)
Dicentrarchus labrax
Picture by Crocetta, F.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Eupercaria/misc (Various families in series Eupercaria) > Moronidae (Temperate basses)
Etymology: Dicentrarchus: Greek, di = two + Greek, kentron = sting + Greek, archos = anus (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 海洋洄游的; 深度上下限 10 - 100 m (Ref. 9987).   亞熱帶的; 8°C - 24°C (Ref. 4944); 72°N - 11°N, 19°W - 42°E (Ref. 54221)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Norway to Morocco, the Canary Islands and Senegal. Also known from the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Absent from White, Barents, Baltic and Caspian Seas (Ref. 59043).
東大西洋: 挪威到摩洛哥, 加納利群島與塞內加爾。 記錄來自冰島了。 (參考文獻 12462) 也已知來自地中海與黑海。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 32.3, range 23 - 46 cm
Max length : 103 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 40637); common length : 50.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 6916); 最大体重: 12.0 kg (Ref. 1468); 最大年龄: 30 年 (Ref. 59043)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 8 - 10; 背的软条 (总数): 12-13; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 10 - 12. Diagnosis: head with cycloid scales above; mouth moderately protractile (Ref. 231). Vomerine teeth only anteriorly (Ref. 231), in a crescentic band (Ref. 231, 57391). Scales on interorbital space cycloid (Ref. 57391). Posterior edge of opercle finely serrated, lower edge with strong forward- directed denticles (Ref. 231). 2 flat opercular spines (Ref. 231, 57391). Young with some dark spots on upper part of body (Ref. 231).
鳃盖的后缘细锯齿状的, 下缘有强的朝向前的细齿。 2根平坦的鳃盖棘。 嘴一般可伸出。 在身体的上半部上幼鱼有一些深色斑点。 头部有圆形的鳞片上方。 犁骨齿只有前面地, 在一条新月形的条纹中。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults manifest demersal behavior, inhabit coastal waters down to about 100 m depth but more common in shallow waters (Ref. 54221, 57391). Found in the littoral zone on various kinds of bottoms on estuaries, lagoons and occasionally rivers. They enter coastal waters and river mouths in summer, but migrate offshore in colder weather and occur in deep water during winter in the northern range. Young fish form school, but adults appear to be less gregarious (Ref. 9987). Feed chiefly on shrimps and mollusks, also on fishes (Ref. 5990). Juveniles feed on invertebrates, taking increasingly more fish with age. Adults piscivorous . (Ref. 59043). Spawn in batches (Ref. 51846). Spawning takes place in the spring near the British Isles, and earlier in its southern range. Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 35388). Marketed fresh or smoked (Ref. 9987). Highly sought by sport fishermen (Ref. 30578).

底栖行为, 居住于沿岸水域向下至大约 100 公尺深但是较常见于浅水域.(参考文献 54221) 在河口上的各种不同类型的底部上栖息于海滨的区域, 舄湖与偶然地河。 在夏天进入沿岸水域与河口, 但是移动较寒冷的天气的外海而且在北方的范围中在冬天期间出现于深水域中。 幼鱼形成鱼群,但是成鱼状似比较不群居.(参考文献 9987) 主要捕食虾与软件动物,也吃鱼。 (参考文献 5990) 在市场上销售新鲜或熏制。 (参考文献 9987) 深受运动钓鱼者企求。 (参考文献 30578) 产卵,发生于春天在英國人的附近成為島嶼, 與比較早的在它的南方範圍中。 卵是大洋性的。 (參考文獻 35388)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Spawn in groups. Eggs are pelagic. In the Mediterranean, first sexual maturity occurs generally between 2 and 4 years of age while in the Atlantic sexual maturity happens a little later (males between 4-7 years and females between 5-8 years). Spawning happens just once a year and it tends to be in winter, although in southern areas it can occur in spring. Eggs have 1-2 fat drops that fuse about 12 hours after laying. Embryo development lasts about three days at 13-14°C and larval development about 40 days at 19°C. Egg size 1.1-1.5 mm, larval length at hatching 3 mm.東大西洋: 挪威到摩洛哥, 加納利群島與塞內加爾。 記錄來自冰島了。 (參考文獻 12462) 也已知來自地中海與黑海。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Smith, C.L., 1990. Moronidae. p. 692-694. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6916)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO - 养殖: 产生, 物种外形; 渔业: landings, 物种外形; Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.3 - 19.5, mean 10.7 °C (based on 788 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7656   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00768 - 0.01135), b=3.02 (2.96 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 7.8 (5.0 - 11.8) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 32 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.06-0.33; tm=2-8; tmax=30; Fec=230,000).
Prior r = 0.54, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.84, Based on 14 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 32.1 [4.4, 156.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.19 [0.48, 2.89] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [18, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.589 [0.286, 1.238] g/100g ; Selenium = 14.3 [5.5, 37.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.25 [2.39, 28.69] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.652 [0.301, 1.466] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.