Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Mulliformes
(Goatfishes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Parupeneus: Latin, parum, parvum = small + Peneus, the name of a river. More on author: Richardson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 19.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36558)
soft rays: 7. Diagnosis: Pectoral rays 14-16 (usually 15, rarely 14). Gill rakers 5-7 + 20-23 (total 26-30). Body depth 3.1-3.5 in SL; head length 2.5-3.2 in SL; snout length 1.85-2.3 in HL; barbel length 1.3-1.6 in HL; third dorsal spine longest 1.15-1.8 in HL; pectoral fins 1.3-1.45 in HL; pelvic fins 1.3-1.45 in HL. Body reddish brown dorsally, white to pink ventrally with two parallel dark red to dark yellowish brown stripes on body, converging on head at base of upper lip, the uppermost passing through eye, stripes separated by a white or pink band, the lower stripe bordered below by white or pink, the upper bordered above by a yellow and white band or a light red band; a dark red to black spot within upper red or yellowish brown stripe behind eye; a faint saddle-like orangish to yellowish spot may be present anteriorly on caudal peduncle, followed by a saddle-like dusky red spot; barbels; fins pale red to pink, the tip of upper caudal lobe whitish to pale pink (Ref. 54393).
Inhabits sandy areas around shallow rocky reefs and coral communities, especially shallower than 10 m (Ref. 36558). Feeds on crustaceans, foraminiferans and polychaetes (Ref. 36558).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 2004. Revision of the goatfish genus Parupeneus (Perciformes: Mullidae), with descriptions of two new species. Indo-Pac. Fish. (36):64 p. (Ref. 54393)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00556 - 0.02601), b=3.10 (2.93 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .