Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 2 - 140 m (Ref. 50610), usually ? - 60 m (Ref. 51666). Temperate
Northwest Pacific: northern Okhotsk Sea to Pacific coast of Hokkaido and Japan Sea to Peter the Great Bay.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sokolovskaya, T.G., A.S. Sokolovskii and E.I. Sobolevskii, 1998. A list of fishes of Peter the Great Bay (the Sea of Japan). J. Ichthyol. 38(1):1-11. (Ref. 27683)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.6 - 17.1, mean 10 °C (based on 76 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .