Polypterus senegalus, Gray bichir : fisheries

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Polypterus senegalus Cuvier 1829

Gray bichir
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Polypterus senegalus
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Classification / Names Populärnamn | synonymer | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Polypteriformes (Bichirs) > Polypteridae (Bichirs)
Etymology: Polypterus: Greek, poly = a lot of + Greek, pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335);  senegalus: Named after M. d'Arnaud, collector of the two specimens (Ref. 1688).  More on author: Cuvier.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; sötvatten bottenlevande; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19; flodvandrande (Ref. 51243).   Tropical; 25°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060); 16°N - 2°S, 17°W - 37°E

Utbredning Länder | FAO områden | Ekosystem | Förekomster | Point map | Utplanteringar | Faunafri

Africa: subspecies Polypterus senegalus senegalus known from West Africa, in Senegal, Gambia, Niger, Volta and Chad basins (Ref. 2835, 3188, 81263), up to Nile River basin (Ref. 2835, 3188) and lakes Turkana (Ref. 3188) and Albert (Ref. 41590, 48922, 48960); subspecies Polypterus senegalus meridionalis known from middle and upper Congo River basin (Ref. 2835, 3188, 4910, 45434).

Length at first maturity / Size / Vikt / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 15 - 23 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm SL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 3188); publicerad maxvikt: 207.00 g (Ref. 3013)

Short description Morfologi | Morfometri

Taggstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 8 - 11; Taggstrålar i analfenan 14-17; Ryggkotor: 53 - 59. Diagnosis: Polypterus senegalus is characterized by jaws of equal length or an upper jaw slightly longer than lower jaw and a pectoral fin not reaching the first dorsal ray (Ref. 2756, 2835, 42908, 43035, 81263).

Biologi     Ordlista (t.ex. epibenthic)

This species inhabits marginal swamps and freshwater lagoons (Ref. 3066) and it appears to favor sheltered inshore habitats (Ref. 3034); it inhabits the muddy regions at the sides of rivers and swampy waters, where it lies quiet or glides about with snake-like movements (Ref. 49805). During the hottest hours of the day, it comes to the surface just on the outer edge of the vegetation, and it goes back to the bottom when disturbed (Ref. 45962). It feeds on insects, crustaceans, mollusks, frogs and fishes (Ref. 4903, Ref. 28714). Polypterus senegalus senegalus is mainly insectivorous (Ref. 367). Longevity of Polypterus senegalus in captivity can be 34 years and more (Ref. 48954). Larval fish 1.1-3.8 cm SL were found in papyrus root mat and juveniles up to 10 cm SL retaining external gills were found in fringing water hyacinth. Feeds mainly on fishes (Ref. 9695), insects, crustaceans, mollusks, frogs as well as on plant fragments and seeds.

Life cycle and mating behavior Könsmognad | Reproduktion | Lek | Ägg | Fecundity | Larver

In Polypterus senegalus courtship starts with a series of leaps from the surface by usually only one of the pair at a time, followed by a slow descent through the water. After a while the male stays very close to the female and at times the female will remain motionless in the water and the male will come up to her from behind and nudge her with sidewise movements of his head. The enlarged and swollen anal fin of the male is folded in a cup-like fashion and is used to brush the female (Ref. 42791). No nest is constructed, but the eggs are laid a few at a time throughout the thick vegetation (Ref. 42791). The larvae, which move about with the male parent in a dense school, are provided with accessory gills and appear very salamander-like (Ref. 42791).

Main reference Upload your references | referenser | Koordinator | Medarbetare

Gosse, J.P. and J. Daget, 2003. Polypteridae. p. 101-112. In D. Paugy, C. Lévêque and G.G Teugels (eds.) The fresh and brackish water fishes of West Africa Volume 1. Coll. faune et flore tropicales 40. Institut de recherche de développement, Paris, France, Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, France and Musée royal de l'Afrique Central, Tervuren, Belgium, 457p. (Ref. 81263)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 07 June 2019

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fiskeri: kommersiell
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

Ytterligare information

Populärnamn
synonymer
Metabolik
Predatorer
Ekotoxikologi
Reproduktion
Könsmognad
Lek
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Ägg
Egg development
Age/Size
Tillväxt
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometri
Morfologi
Larver
Larvdynamik
Rekrytering
Abundans
BRUVS
referenser
Vattenbruk
Vattenbruksprofil
Avelslinjer
Genetik
Allelfrekvenser
Ärftlighet
Sjukdomar
Behandling
Mass conversion
Medarbetare
Bilder
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Ljud
Ciguatera
Hastighet
Simsätt
Gälyta
Otoliths
Hjärnstorlek
Syn

Verktyg

Special reports

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Internet-källor

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Offentliga akvarier | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, sök) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5002   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00310 - 0.00931), b=3.00 (2.84 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resiliens (Ref. 120179):  Mycket låg, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid mer än 14 år (tmax=34; Fec < 1,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.