Polypterus senegalus, Gray bichir : fisheries

Polypterus senegalus Cuvier 1829

Gray bichir
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Cladistii > Polypteriformes (Bichirs) > Polypteridae (Bichirs)
Etymology: Polypterus: Greek, poly = a lot of + Greek, pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335);  senegalus: Named after M. d'Arnaud, collector of the two specimens (Ref. 1688).  More on author: Cuvier.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水 居于水底的; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243).   熱帶; 25°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060); 16°N - 2°S, 17°W - 37°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Africa: subspecies Polypterus senegalus senegalus known from West Africa, in Senegal, Gambia, Niger, Volta and Chad basins (Ref. 2835, 3188, 81263), up to Nile River basin (Ref. 2835, 3188) and lakes Turkana (Ref. 3188) and Albert (Ref. 41590, 48922, 48960); subspecies Polypterus senegalus meridionalis known from middle and upper Congo River basin (Ref. 2835, 3188, 4910, 45434).
非洲: 尼羅河流域與非洲西方部,包括塞內加爾,甘比亞,尼日,佛塔河與查德湖流域.(參考文獻 2835)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?, range 15 - 23 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 3188); 最大体重: 207.00 g (Ref. 3013)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 8 - 11; 臀棘 14-17; 脊椎骨: 53 - 59. Diagnosis: Polypterus senegalus is characterized by jaws of equal length or an upper jaw slightly longer than lower jaw and a pectoral fin not reaching the first dorsal ray (Ref. 2756, 2835, 42908, 43035, 81263).
圆筒形的身体.(参考文献 2835, 参考文献 3036, 参考文献 30488) 体高 7.6 到 10.6 倍标准的长度; 头长 5.75 到 7 倍标准的长度.(参考文献 2835, 参考文献 45628) 上颌些微突出或有时颚是有相等长度的.(参考文献 1989, 参考文献 2756, 参考文献 2835) 背鳍有 8-11 离鳍 , 前面的被彼此分开的当折迭.(参考文献 42908) 分枝背鳍与尾鳍鳍条的数字: 15-19.(参考文献 367, 参考文献 2835, 参考文献 3069) 胸鰭不延伸到第一背鰭棘。 (參考文獻 2756, 參考文獻 28714, 參考文獻 13851, 參考文獻 30488) 硬鱗:(參考文獻 42904) 53-61個側線鱗片, 32- 身體的周圍 40個鱗片, 14-21個前背的鱗片.(參考文獻 2835, 參考文獻 42908, 參考文獻 43745) 背面全橄欖色與腹的旁白色, 沒有斑塊或大理石紋.(參考文獻 367, 參考文獻 3036, 參考文獻 30488) 鰭是灰色的。 (參考文獻 367) 幼魚在側面上有三個深色的縱向條紋,但是這些斑紋消失早年。 (參考文獻 2835, 參考文獻 13851, 參考文獻 31439)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

This species inhabits marginal swamps and freshwater lagoons (Ref. 3066) and it appears to favor sheltered inshore habitats (Ref. 3034); it inhabits the muddy regions at the sides of rivers and swampy waters, where it lies quiet or glides about with snake-like movements (Ref. 49805). During the hottest hours of the day, it comes to the surface just on the outer edge of the vegetation, and it goes back to the bottom when disturbed (Ref. 45962). It feeds on insects, crustaceans, mollusks, frogs and fishes (Ref. 4903, Ref. 28714). Polypterus senegalus senegalus is mainly insectivorous (Ref. 367). Longevity of Polypterus senegalus in captivity can be 34 years and more (Ref. 48954). Larval fish 1.1-3.8 cm SL were found in papyrus root mat and juveniles up to 10 cm SL retaining external gills were found in fringing water hyacinth. Feeds mainly on fishes (Ref. 9695), insects, crustaceans, mollusks, frogs as well as on plant fragments and seeds.

这一个种居住于沼泽边缘与淡水泻湖 (参考文献 3066) ,而且它似乎喜欢掩蔽的近海栖息地;(参考文献 3034) 它在河的侧边与沼泽的水域里居住于泥泞的区域, 在哪里它安静的停驻或者像蛇一样到处滑动.(参考文献 49805) 在白天的最热几小时的时候,它在植物的外部边缘上正好来到表面,而且它去游回底部当被惊扰时.(参考文献 45962) 吃昆虫,甲壳动物,软件动物,青蛙与鱼。 (参考文献 4903, 参考文献 28714) 塞内盖尔多鳍鱼[Polypterus senegalus senegalus] 主要食虫。 (参考文献 367) Polypterus senegalus 的寿命在繁殖场可能是 34 年与更多。 (参考文献 48954) 仔鱼 1.1-3.8 公分 SL 被发现于纸草簇根与稚鱼,向上到保有外鳃的 10 公分 SL 被发现于水畔的风信子。 主要吃鱼 (参考文献 9695) ,昆虫,甲壳动物,软件动物,青蛙以及植物碎片与种子。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

In Polypterus senegalus courtship starts with a series of leaps from the surface by usually only one of the pair at a time, followed by a slow descent through the water. After a while the male stays very close to the female and at times the female will remain motionless in the water and the male will come up to her from behind and nudge her with sidewise movements of his head. The enlarged and swollen anal fin of the male is folded in a cup-like fashion and is used to brush the female (Ref. 42791). No nest is constructed, but the eggs are laid a few at a time throughout the thick vegetation (Ref. 42791). The larvae, which move about with the male parent in a dense school, are provided with accessory gills and appear very salamander-like (Ref. 42791).非洲: 尼羅河流域與非洲西方部,包括塞內加爾,甘比亞,尼日,佛塔河與查德湖流域.(參考文獻 2835)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Gosse, J.P. and J. Daget, 2003. Polypteridae. p. 101-112. In D. Paugy, C. Lévêque and G.G Teugels (eds.) The fresh and brackish water fishes of West Africa Volume 1. Coll. faune et flore tropicales 40. Institut de recherche de développement, Paris, France, Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, France and Musée royal de l'Afrique Central, Tervuren, Belgium, 457p. (Ref. 81263)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 07 June 2019

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性
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孕卵数

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5002   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00310 - 0.00931), b=3.00 (2.84 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增时间超过14 年 (tmax=34; Fec < 1,000).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.