Polypterus senegalus, Gray bichir : fisheries

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Polypterus senegalus Cuvier 1829

Gray bichir
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Polypterus senegalus
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Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinónimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Polypteriformes (Bichirs) > Polypteridae (Bichirs)
Etymology: Polypterus: Greek, poly = a lot of + Greek, pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335);  senegalus: Named after M. d'Arnaud, collector of the two specimens (Ref. 1688).  More on author: Cuvier.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; Água doce demersal; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19; potamódromo (Ref. 51243).   Tropical; 25°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060); 16°N - 2°S, 17°W - 37°E

Distribuição Países | Áreas FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Africa: subspecies Polypterus senegalus senegalus known from West Africa, in Senegal, Gambia, Niger, Volta and Chad basins (Ref. 2835, 3188, 81263), up to Nile River basin (Ref. 2835, 3188) and lakes Turkana (Ref. 3188) and Albert (Ref. 41590, 48922, 48960); subspecies Polypterus senegalus meridionalis known from middle and upper Congo River basin (Ref. 2835, 3188, 4910, 45434).

Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm ?, range 15 - 23 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm SL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 3188); peso máx. Publicado: 207.00 g (Ref. 3013)

Descrição breve Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 8 - 11; Espinhos anais 14-17; Vértebras: 53 - 59. Diagnosis: Polypterus senegalus is characterized by jaws of equal length or an upper jaw slightly longer than lower jaw and a pectoral fin not reaching the first dorsal ray (Ref. 2756, 2835, 42908, 43035, 81263).

Biologia     Glossário (ex. epibenthic)

This species inhabits marginal swamps and freshwater lagoons (Ref. 3066) and it appears to favor sheltered inshore habitats (Ref. 3034); it inhabits the muddy regions at the sides of rivers and swampy waters, where it lies quiet or glides about with snake-like movements (Ref. 49805). During the hottest hours of the day, it comes to the surface just on the outer edge of the vegetation, and it goes back to the bottom when disturbed (Ref. 45962). It feeds on insects, crustaceans, mollusks, frogs and fishes (Ref. 4903, Ref. 28714). Polypterus senegalus senegalus is mainly insectivorous (Ref. 367). Longevity of Polypterus senegalus in captivity can be 34 years and more (Ref. 48954). Larval fish 1.1-3.8 cm SL were found in papyrus root mat and juveniles up to 10 cm SL retaining external gills were found in fringing water hyacinth. Feeds mainly on fishes (Ref. 9695), insects, crustaceans, mollusks, frogs as well as on plant fragments and seeds.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

In Polypterus senegalus courtship starts with a series of leaps from the surface by usually only one of the pair at a time, followed by a slow descent through the water. After a while the male stays very close to the female and at times the female will remain motionless in the water and the male will come up to her from behind and nudge her with sidewise movements of his head. The enlarged and swollen anal fin of the male is folded in a cup-like fashion and is used to brush the female (Ref. 42791). No nest is constructed, but the eggs are laid a few at a time throughout the thick vegetation (Ref. 42791). The larvae, which move about with the male parent in a dense school, are provided with accessory gills and appear very salamander-like (Ref. 42791).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador | Colaboradores

Gosse, J.P. and J. Daget, 2003. Polypteridae. p. 101-112. In D. Paugy, C. Lévêque and G.G Teugels (eds.) The fresh and brackish water fishes of West Africa Volume 1. Coll. faune et flore tropicales 40. Institut de recherche de développement, Paris, France, Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, France and Musée royal de l'Afrique Central, Tervuren, Belgium, 457p. (Ref. 81263)

Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 123251)

  Preocupação menor (LC) ; Date assessed: 07 June 2019

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para o homem

  Harmless





Utilização humana

Pescarias: espécies comerciais
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

Mais informação

Nomes comuns
Sinónimos
Metabolismo
Predadores
Ecotoxicologia
Reprodução
Maturidade
Desova
Agregação para desova
Fecundidade
Ovos
Desenvolvimento dos ovos
Idade/Tamanho
Crescimento
Comprimento-peso
Comprimento-comprimento
Frequência de comprimento
Morfometria
Morfologia
Larvas
Dinâmica larvar
Recrutamento
Abundância
BRUVS
Referências
Aquacultura
Perfil para aquacultura
Estirpes
Genética
Frequência dos alelos
Hereditariedade
Doenças
Processamento
Mass conversion
Colaboradores
Fotografias
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sons
Ciguatera
Velocidade
Tipo de natação
Área branquial
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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5002   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00310 - 0.00931), b=3.00 (2.84 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  Muito baixo, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população maior que 14 anos (tmax=34; Fec < 1,000).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.