Polypterus senegalus, Gray bichir : fisheries

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Polypterus senegalus Cuvier 1829

Gray bichir
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Cladistii > Polypteriformes (Bichirs) 多鰭魚目 (Bichirs) > Polypteridae (Bichirs) 多鰭魚科 (Bichirs)
Etymology: Polypterus: Greek, poly = a lot of + Greek, pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335);  senegalus: Named after M. d'Arnaud, collector of the two specimens (Ref. 1688).  More on author: Cuvier.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水 居於水底的; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243).   熱帶; 25°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060); 16°N - 2°S, 17°W - 37°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Africa: subspecies Polypterus senegalus senegalus known from West Africa, in Senegal, Gambia, Niger, Volta and Chad basins (Ref. 2835, 3188, 81263), up to Nile River basin (Ref. 2835, 3188) and lakes Turkana (Ref. 3188) and Albert (Ref. 41590, 48922, 48960); subspecies Polypterus senegalus meridionalis known from middle and upper Congo River basin (Ref. 2835, 3188, 4910, 45434).
非洲: 尼羅河流域與非洲西方部,包括塞內加爾,甘比亞,尼日,佛塔河與查德湖流域.(參考文獻 2835)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 15 - 23 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3188); 最大體重: 207.00 g (Ref. 3013)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 8 - 11; 臀棘 14-17; 脊椎骨: 53 - 59. Diagnosis: Polypterus senegalus is characterized by jaws of equal length or an upper jaw slightly longer than lower jaw and a pectoral fin not reaching the first dorsal ray (Ref. 2756, 2835, 42908, 43035, 81263).
圓筒形的身體.(參考文獻 2835, 參考文獻 3036, 參考文獻 30488) 體高 7.6 到 10.6 倍標準的長度; 頭長 5.75 到 7 倍標準的長度.(參考文獻 2835, 參考文獻 45628) 上頜些微突出或有時顎是有相等長度的.(參考文獻 1989, 參考文獻 2756, 參考文獻 2835) 背鰭有 8-11 離鰭 , 前面的被彼此分開的當摺疊.(參考文獻 42908) 分枝背鰭與尾鰭鰭條的數字: 15-19.(參考文獻 367, 參考文獻 2835, 參考文獻 3069) 胸鰭不延伸到第一背鰭棘。 (參考文獻 2756, 參考文獻 28714, 參考文獻 13851, 參考文獻 30488) 硬鱗:(參考文獻 42904) 53-61個側線鱗片,32- 身體的周圍 40個鱗片,14-21個前背的鱗片.(參考文獻 2835, 參考文獻 42908, 參考文獻 43745) 背面全橄欖色與腹的旁白色, 沒有斑塊或大理石紋.(參考文獻 367, 參考文獻 3036, 參考文獻 30488) 鰭是灰色的。 (參考文獻 367) 幼魚在側面上有三個深色的縱向條紋,但是這些斑紋消失早年。 (參考文獻 2835, 參考文獻 13851, 參考文獻 31439)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

This species inhabits marginal swamps and freshwater lagoons (Ref. 3066) and it appears to favor sheltered inshore habitats (Ref. 3034); it inhabits the muddy regions at the sides of rivers and swampy waters, where it lies quiet or glides about with snake-like movements (Ref. 49805). During the hottest hours of the day, it comes to the surface just on the outer edge of the vegetation, and it goes back to the bottom when disturbed (Ref. 45962). It feeds on insects, crustaceans, mollusks, frogs and fishes (Ref. 4903, Ref. 28714). Polypterus senegalus senegalus is mainly insectivorous (Ref. 367). Longevity of Polypterus senegalus in captivity can be 34 years and more (Ref. 48954). Larval fish 1.1-3.8 cm SL were found in papyrus root mat and juveniles up to 10 cm SL retaining external gills were found in fringing water hyacinth. Feeds mainly on fishes (Ref. 9695), insects, crustaceans, mollusks, frogs as well as on plant fragments and seeds.

這一個種居住於沼澤邊緣與淡水潟湖 (參考文獻 3066) ,而且它似乎喜歡掩蔽的近海棲息地;(參考文獻 3034) 它在河的側邊與沼澤的水域裡居住於泥濘的區域, 在那裡它安靜的停駐或者像蛇一樣到處滑動.(參考文獻 49805) 在白天的最熱幾小時的時候,它在植物的外部邊緣上正好來到表面,而且它去游回底部當被驚擾時.(參考文獻 45962) 吃昆蟲,甲殼動物,軟體動物,青蛙與魚。 (參考文獻 4903, 參考文獻 28714) 塞內加爾多鰭魚〔Polypterus senegalus senegalus〕 主要食蟲。 (參考文獻 367) Polypterus senegalus 的壽命在繁殖場可能是 34 年與更多。 (參考文獻 48954) 仔魚 1.1-3.8 公分 SL 被發現於紙草簇根與稚魚,向上到保有外鰓的 10 公分 SL 被發現於水畔的風信子。 主要吃魚 (參考文獻 9695) ,昆蟲,甲殼動物,軟體動物,青蛙以及植物碎片與種子。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

In Polypterus senegalus courtship starts with a series of leaps from the surface by usually only one of the pair at a time, followed by a slow descent through the water. After a while the male stays very close to the female and at times the female will remain motionless in the water and the male will come up to her from behind and nudge her with sidewise movements of his head. The enlarged and swollen anal fin of the male is folded in a cup-like fashion and is used to brush the female (Ref. 42791). No nest is constructed, but the eggs are laid a few at a time throughout the thick vegetation (Ref. 42791). The larvae, which move about with the male parent in a dense school, are provided with accessory gills and appear very salamander-like (Ref. 42791).非洲: 尼羅河流域與非洲西方部,包括塞內加爾,甘比亞,尼日,佛塔河與查德湖流域.(參考文獻 2835)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Gosse, J.P. and J. Daget, 2003. Polypteridae. p. 101-112. In D. Paugy, C. Lévêque and G.G Teugels (eds.) The fresh and brackish water fishes of West Africa Volume 1. Coll. faune et flore tropicales 40. Institut de recherche de développement, Paris, France, Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, France and Musée royal de l'Afrique Central, Tervuren, Belgium, 457p. (Ref. 81263)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 07 June 2019

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性
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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5002   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00310 - 0.00931), b=3.00 (2.84 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增時間超過14 年 (tmax=34; Fec < 1,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.