Pseudotolithus senegallus, Law croaker : fisheries, gamefish
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Pseudotolithus senegallus (Cuvier, 1830)

Law croaker
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Pseudotolithus senegallus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pseudotolithus senegallus (Law croaker)
Pseudotolithus senegallus
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Classification / Names Populärnamn | synonymer | Catalog of Fishes(Släkte, Arter) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Eupercaria/misc (Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Pseudotolithus: Greek, pseudes = false + greek, otos = ear + Greek, lithos = stone (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Cuvier.

Issue
The species Pseudotolithus brachygnathus Bleeker, 1863 is considered as valid in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Jul. 2010: Ref. 84883) according to Afonso et al. (1999: Ref. 34088).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; marina; brackvatten bottenlevande; djupintervall - 150 m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ).   Tropical; 0°C - ; 16°N - 17°S

Utbredning Länder | FAO områden | Ekosystem | Förekomster | Point map | Utplanteringar | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania (Ref. 5377) to Angola.

Length at first maturity / Size / Vikt / Age

Maturity: Lm 30.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 230 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 2683); common length : 85.0 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 2683); publicerad maxvikt: 12.5 kg (Ref. 40637)

Short description Morfologi | Morfometri

Taggstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 11; Mjukstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 25-27. Diagnosis: body elongated; mouth short and large, chin without barbels; teeth fine (Ref. 5377). Dorsal with 10 spines in the first part; second part of dorsal fin with 1 spine and 25-27 soft rays; second anal spine about half the length of the 1st anal fin soft ray; pectoral fins short, about 18-20% SL; maxilla extending to posterior half of eye; 8-10/1/5-7 (total 14-18) gill rakers on 1st gill arch; gill rakers short, about as long as gill filament at angle between lower and upper part of gill arch (Ref. 81656).

Biologi     Ordlista (t.ex. epibenthic)

Found over mud and sandy bottoms, enters coastal lagoons and estuaries. Feeds on small fish and crustaceans. Flesh highly appreciated; caught by artisanal fishers (Ref. 5377).

Life cycle and mating behavior Könsmognad | Reproduktion | Lek | Ägg | Fecundity | Larver

Main reference Upload your references | referenser | Koordinator | Medarbetare

Sasaki, K., 1993. Corvina senegalla Cuvier, a senior synonym of Pseudotolithus (Pseudotolithus) brachygnathus Bleeker (Sciaenidae: Periciformes). Jap. J. Ichthyol. 40(3):361-362. (Ref. 10077)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)

  Sårbar, se IUCNs rödlista (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 17 March 2020

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Fiskeri: mindre kommeriell; sportfisk: ja
FAO - fiskeri: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Ytterligare information

Länder
FAO områden
Ekosystem
Förekomster
Utplanteringar
Stocks
Ekologi
Föda
Födoslag
Födointag
Näringsinnehåll
Populärnamn
synonymer
Metabolik
Predatorer
Ekotoxikologi
Reproduktion
Könsmognad
Lek
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Ägg
Egg development
Age/Size
Tillväxt
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometri
Morfologi
Larver
Larvdynamik
Rekrytering
Abundans
BRUVS
referenser
Vattenbruk
Vattenbruksprofil
Avelslinjer
Genetik
Allelfrekvenser
Ärftlighet
Sjukdomar
Behandling
Nutrients
Mass conversion
Medarbetare
Bilder
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Ljud
Ciguatera
Hastighet
Simsätt
Gälyta
Otoliths
Hjärnstorlek
Syn

Verktyg

Special reports

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Internet-källor

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Släkte, Arter | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - fiskeri: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, sök | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 18.6 - 27.9, mean 25.7 °C (based on 120 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00433 - 0.01835), b=3.07 (2.90 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resiliens (Ref. 120179):  Låg, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid 4,5-14 år (Assuming tmax>10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (78 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 53.4 [27.6, 100.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.609 [0.354, 1.135] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [17.1, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.376 [0.180, 0.782] g/100g ; Selenium = 102 [47, 222] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.8 [4.2, 42.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.836 [0.532, 1.376] mg/100g (wet weight);