Pseudotolithus senegallus, Law croaker : fisheries, gamefish
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Pseudotolithus senegallus (Cuvier, 1830)

Law croaker
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Pseudotolithus senegallus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Pseudotolithus senegallus
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Eupercaria/misc (Various families in series Eupercaria) 鱸形目 (Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers) 石首魚科 (Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Pseudotolithus: Greek, pseudes = false + greek, otos = ear + Greek, lithos = stone (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Cuvier.

Issue
The species Pseudotolithus brachygnathus Bleeker, 1863 is considered as valid in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Jul. 2010: Ref. 84883) according to Afonso et al. (1999: Ref. 34088).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 深度上下限 - 150 m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ).   熱帶; 0°C - ; 16°N - 17°S

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania (Ref. 5377) to Angola.
東大西洋: 茅利塔尼亞 (參考文獻 5377) 到安哥拉。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 30.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 230 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 2683); common length : 85.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 2683); 最大体重: 12.5 kg (Ref. 40637)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 11; 背的软条 (总数): 25-27. Diagnosis: body elongated; mouth short and large, chin without barbels; teeth fine (Ref. 5377). Dorsal with 10 spines in the first part; second part of dorsal fin with 1 spine and 25-27 soft rays; second anal spine about half the length of the 1st anal fin soft ray; pectoral fins short, about 18-20% SL; maxilla extending to posterior half of eye; 8-10/1/5-7 (total 14-18) gill rakers on 1st gill arch; gill rakers short, about as long as gill filament at angle between lower and upper part of gill arch (Ref. 81656).
身体延长; 嘴短与大的, 没有触须的下巴; 齿细的.(参考文献 5377)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Found over mud and sandy bottoms, enters coastal lagoons and estuaries. Feeds on small fish and crustaceans. Flesh highly appreciated; caught by artisanal fishers (Ref. 5377).

发现在泥与砂质底部上了, 进入岸边泻湖与河口。 吃小鱼与甲壳动物。 肉高度地欣赏; 被鱼民的渔夫捕获了。 (参考文献 5377)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

東大西洋: 茅利塔尼亞 (參考文獻 5377) 到安哥拉。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Sasaki, K., 1993. Corvina senegalla Cuvier, a senior synonym of Pseudotolithus (Pseudotolithus) brachygnathus Bleeker (Sciaenidae: Periciformes). Jap. J. Ichthyol. 40(3):361-362. (Ref. 10077)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 124695)

  次级保育类动物, 见 IUCN 红皮书 (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 17 March 2020

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO - 渔业: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋

更多信息

国家
FAO区域
生态系
标本纪录
简介
Stocks
生态学
食性
食物相
食物消耗量
定量
俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
参考文献
养殖
养殖信息
品种
遗传学
基因序列
遗传率
疾病
加工
Nutrients
Mass conversion
合作者
照片
Stamps, Coins Misc.
声音
神经毒
速度
泳型
鳃区
Otoliths
脑重体重比
眼睛色素

工具

特别资料

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网络资源

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - 渔业: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 18.6 - 27.9, mean 25.7 °C (based on 120 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00433 - 0.01835), b=3.07 (2.90 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.67 se; based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (Assuming tmax>10).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (78 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 53.4 [27.6, 100.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.609 [0.354, 1.135] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [17.1, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.376 [0.180, 0.782] g/100g ; Selenium = 102 [47, 222] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.8 [4.2, 42.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.836 [0.532, 1.376] mg/100g (wet weight);