Pseudotolithus senegallus, Law croaker : fisheries, gamefish
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Pseudotolithus senegallus (Cuvier, 1830)

Law croaker
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Pseudotolithus senegallus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pseudotolithus senegallus (Law croaker)
Pseudotolithus senegallus
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Classification / Names Nomi Comuni | Sinonimi | Catalog of Fishes(Genere, Specie) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Eupercaria/misc (Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Pseudotolithus: Greek, pseudes = false + greek, otos = ear + Greek, lithos = stone (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Cuvier.

Issue
The species Pseudotolithus brachygnathus Bleeker, 1863 is considered as valid in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Jul. 2010: Ref. 84883) according to Afonso et al. (1999: Ref. 34088).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marino; salmastro demersale; distribuzione batimetrica - 150 m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ).   Tropical; 0°C - ; 16°N - 17°S

Distribuzione Stati | Aree FAO | Ecosystems | Presenze | Point map | Introduzioni | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania (Ref. 5377) to Angola.

Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm 30.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 230 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 2683); common length : 85.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 2683); peso massimo pubblicato: 12.5 kg (Ref. 40637)

Short description Morfologia | Morfometria

Spine dorsali (totale): 11; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 25-27. Diagnosis: body elongated; mouth short and large, chin without barbels; teeth fine (Ref. 5377). Dorsal with 10 spines in the first part; second part of dorsal fin with 1 spine and 25-27 soft rays; second anal spine about half the length of the 1st anal fin soft ray; pectoral fins short, about 18-20% SL; maxilla extending to posterior half of eye; 8-10/1/5-7 (total 14-18) gill rakers on 1st gill arch; gill rakers short, about as long as gill filament at angle between lower and upper part of gill arch (Ref. 81656).

Biologia     Glossario (es. epibenthic)

Found over mud and sandy bottoms, enters coastal lagoons and estuaries. Feeds on small fish and crustaceans. Flesh highly appreciated; caught by artisanal fishers (Ref. 5377).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve

Main reference Upload your references | Bibliografia | Coordinatore | Collaboratori

Sasaki, K., 1993. Corvina senegalla Cuvier, a senior synonym of Pseudotolithus (Pseudotolithus) brachygnathus Bleeker (Sciaenidae: Periciformes). Jap. J. Ichthyol. 40(3):361-362. (Ref. 10077)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)

  Vulnerabile, vedi Lista Rossa IUCN (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 17 March 2020

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale; Pesce da pesca sportiva: si
FAO - pesca: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Informazioni ulteriori

Stati
Aree FAO
Ecosystems
Presenze
Introduzioni
Stocks
Ecologia
Dieta
Prede
Consumo di cibo
Razione
Nomi Comuni
Sinonimi
Metabolismo
Predatori
Ecotossicologia
Riproduzione
Maturità
Deposizione
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Uova
Egg development
Age/Size
Accrescimento
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometria
Morfologia
Larve
Dinamica popolazioni larvali
Reclutamento
Abbondanza
BRUVS
Bibliografia
Acquacoltura
Profilo di acquacoltura
Varietà
Genetica
Frequenze alleliche
Ereditarietà
Malattie
Elaborazione
Nutrients
Mass conversion
Collaboratori
Immagini
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suoni
Ciguatera
Velocità
Modalità di nuoto
Area branchiale
Otoliths
Cervelli
Vista

Strumenti

Special reports

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Fonti Internet

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Genere, Specie | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - pesca: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, ricerca | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 18.6 - 27.9, mean 25.7 °C (based on 120 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00433 - 0.01835), b=3.07 (2.90 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179):  Basso, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 4.5 - 14 anni (Assuming tmax>10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (78 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 53.4 [27.6, 100.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.609 [0.354, 1.135] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [17.1, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.376 [0.180, 0.782] g/100g ; Selenium = 102 [47, 222] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.8 [4.2, 42.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.836 [0.532, 1.376] mg/100g (wet weight);