Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; laut dasar (demersal); oceanodromus (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman 0 - 172 m (Ref. 114018). Temperate; 54°N - 30°N, 118°E - 118°W
Northwest Pacific: inland Sea of Japan to Kyushu, Japan. Northeast Pacific: From southern California to the western Aleutian Islands (Ref. 114018), Alaska (Ref. 11366).
Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 559); common length : 10.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 559)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 55-59; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 28 - 32; vertebrata, bertulang belakang: 62 - 67. Characterized by having a horizontal skin fold along its ventral contour, and the absence of pelvic fin and teeth. Lateral plicae 160 to 180. Lower jaw pointed. Lateral line system on head not continuous with that on the body.
Found in sand bottoms and may enter semi-enclosed sea areas (Ref. 11230). Forms large schools. Important food fish in Japan (marketed fresh or dried) and marketed fresh but mainly used for meal and oil manufacture in Europe (Ref. 10384). Common size taken from picture in Ref. 559. Maximum size estimated as 1.5 * common size. Two genetically different lineages were found in Japan Sea/East Sea, perhaps representing two different species (J.K. Kim, oral.comm, FishBoL2012, June 2012).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
ancaman kepada manusia
Perikanan: bernilai komersial tinggi
AcuanBudidaya airprofil budidaya airStrainGenetikaFrekuensi alelDiturunkanPenyakit-penyakitPengolahanNutrientsMass conversion
mitraGambarStamps, Coins Misc.Suara-suaraCiguateraKecepatanTipe renangArea insangOtolithsOtakPenglihatan / visi
muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.9 - 23, mean 19.1 °C (based on 74 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00534 - 0.01960), b=3.21 (3.04 - 3.38), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): Tinggi, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum kurang dari 15 bulan (K=0.6).
Prior r = 0.79, 95% CL = 0.52 - 1.18, Based on 4 stock assessments.
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 77.9 [37.6, 149.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.463 [0.269, 0.821] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.6, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.495 [0.270, 0.921] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.3 [7.4, 35.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 22.6 [6.9, 71.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.768 [0.519, 1.118] mg/100g (wet weight);