Alosa tanaica, Black Sea shad

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Alosa tanaica (Grimm, 1901)

Black Sea shad
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Alosa tanaica   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Alosa tanaica (Black Sea shad)
Alosa tanaica
Picture by Otel, V.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 50 - 70 m (Ref. 59043), usually - m (Ref. ).   温带; 0°C - ; 49°N - 36°N, 27°E - 54°E

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Eurasia: Black Sea and Sea of Azov from where adults ascend rivers, migrating a short distance upstream to spawn.
黑海,马尔马拉海与亚速海。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.6 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 59105); 最大体重: 59.00 g (Ref. 593)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

Distinguished from its congeners entering freshwater in Black Sea basins by having 66-96 gill rakers, longer than branchial filaments and poorly-developed teeth on palatine and vomer (Ref. 59043).

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

This species migrates from sea to mouth and lower reaches of large rivers (at 1-2 years) and spawns in fresh or slightly brackish water, usually close to the shore, upper 2-4 m, in almost still water bodies as flood plains or lakes. Many individuals spawn 2-4 seasons and spawners appear along the coast in late January to March, enter rivers when temperature reaches about 10°C in late April to May, and spawns at about 15°C or beyond in May to June. Eggs are bathypelagic or sink to bottom. Spent fish migrate to estuarine and coastal lagoons or to sea near river mouths to feed and in autumn, move to sea near river mouths to overwinter. Juveniles migrate to sea or estuaries during first summer and remain there until maturity. At sea, feeds on a wide variety of zooplankton (crustaceans), insect larvae and small fish. Populations seem to have stabilized at moderate level after most have declined during the first decades of 20th century due to water pollution. In northern Black Sea, immediate impact is foreseen due to the decline in habitat quality in suitable estuarine ecosystems. On the other hand, the species is still abundant in Azov Sea basin (Ref. 59043).

对顿河的下面范围产卵回游四月时。 在四月底,它进入库邦河的三角州而且在六月在那里产卵。 冬天时,它被发现沿着高加索海岸向南远至 Batumi。 它移动距离海洋亚速海比另一个鲱鱼早秋天时而且在四月中在那里返回.(参考文献 593)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Juveniles migrate to sea or estuaries during their first summer, remaining there until they mature. After 1-2 years, they migrate upriver to breed. Spawners appear along the coast in late January-March, enter rivers when temperature reaches about 10°C, in late April and May. Spawning occurs from May to June on or above 15°C. Spent individuals migrate to estuaries and coastal lagoons or to sea near river mouths to feed. In autumn, they move to the sea to overwinter (Ref. 59043).黑海,马尔马拉海与亚速海。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Berg, L.S., 1962. Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. volume 1, 4th edition. Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd, Jerusalem. (Russian version published 1948). (Ref. 593)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 124695)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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网络资源

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.6 - 12, mean 7.6 °C (based on 6 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00452 - 0.01334), b=3.07 (2.92 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  高度, 族群倍增时间少于 15个月 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .