Acanthurus pyroferus, Chocolate surgeonfish : fisheries, aquarium

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Acanthurus pyroferus Kittlitz, 1834

Chocolate surgeonfish
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Acanthurus pyroferus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Acanthurus pyroferus (Chocolate surgeonfish)
Acanthurus pyroferus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Acanthuriformes (Surgeonfishes) 鱸形目 (Surgeonfishes) > Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes) 刺尾鯛科 (Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes) > Acanthurinae
Etymology: Acanthurus: Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 礁区鱼类; 深度上下限 4 - 60 m (Ref. 1602), usually 5 - 40 m (Ref. 27115).   热带; 32°N - 24°S, 55°E - 138°W

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Seychelles to the Marquesas and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan, south to the Great Barrier Reef and New Caledonia. Replaced by Acanthurus trisits from the Maldives and Chagos Islands to Bali (Ref. 37816).
印度-太平洋: 塞锡尔群岛到马贵斯群岛与 Tuamoto 岛, 北至日本南部, 南至大堡礁与新加勒多尼亚。 被 Acanthurus trisits 从马尔地夫与查哥斯群岛到巴里岛取代了。 (参考文献 37816)

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 29.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 90102)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 8; 背的软条 (总数): 27-30; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 24 - 28. Purplish black in color; an orange diffused patch at edge of gill opening, just above pectoral fin base; a broad black band from upper end of gill opening to margin of gill cover down to isthmus; caudal spine socket with a narrow black margin. Blackish lips; a trace of orange behind eye; a white line under chin extending slightly above rictus. Gill rakers on anterior row 23-26; on posterior row 25-27. Juveniles can exhibit 3 different color patterns mimicking Centropyge species. Caudal fin rounded in juveniles.
带紫色的黑色; 在鳃裂的边缘的一个橘色的被扩散的小区块, 在胸鳍基底的正上方; 从鳃裂的上端到鳃盖的边缘的一条宽的黑色条纹向下至峡部; 尾棘插口具有一个狭窄的黑色边缘。 黑色的唇; 在眼后面的橘色痕迹; 在延伸的下巴下面的一条白色的线在口裂略上方。 鳃耙在前面列 23-26; 在后列 25-27 上. 稚鱼能展现 3个不同的彩色斑纹拟态刺尻鱼种。 尾鳍在稚鱼中圆的。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs in lagoon and seaward reefs; prefers areas of mixed coral, rock, or sand at the base of reefs or ledges, Ref. 48637. Also on silty reefs (Ref. 9710). Found singly (Ref. 9710). Juveniles mimic Centropyge spp. (in Guam, juveniles mimic C. flavissimus but in Palau where this species is absent, they mimic C. vrolikii), Ref. 48637. Presence of a venom gland could not be determined despite the presence of distinct anterolateral grooves; this may be due to the loss of venom glands in adults (Ref. 57406). Feeds on algae (Ref. 89972).

出现于舄湖与临海礁石; 偏爱混合珊瑚的区域, 在礁的基底或岩架的岩石或沙子, 参考文献 48637. 也在淤泥的礁上.(参考文献 9710) 各别地发现。 (参考文献 9710) 稚鱼拟态 刺尻鱼 spp 。 (在关岛,稚鱼拟态 C. flavissimus 但是在帛琉在哪里这种不存在, 他们拟态 C. vrolikii), 参考文献 48637. 出现一个毒液腺无法被决定不在乎那有明显的前外侧的凹槽; 这可能由于那消失的毒腺在成鱼中.(参考文献57406)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

印度-太平洋: 塞锡尔群岛到马贵斯群岛与 Tuamoto 岛, 北至日本南部, 南至大堡礁与新加勒多尼亚。 被 Acanthurus trisits 从马尔地夫与查哥斯群岛到巴里岛取代了。 (参考文献 37816)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Randall, John E. | 合作者

Randall, J.E., 1956. A revision of the surgeonfish genus Acanthurus. Pac. Sci. 10(2):159-235. (Ref. 1920)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 04 May 2010

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 水族馆: 商业性
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25 - 28.8, mean 27.6 °C (based on 558 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02344 (0.01113 - 0.04936), b=2.96 (2.79 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 2.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.422; Tmax=28).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 66.8 [21.4, 156.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.864 [0.338, 2.143] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [17.3, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.113 [0.055, 0.234] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.4 [6.6, 52.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 29.4 [7.5, 109.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.57 [0.81, 4.92] mg/100g (wet weight);