Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; air tawar; payau dasar (demersal). Temperate; 15°C - 30°C (Ref. 2059); 54°N - 39°N, 106°E - 141°E
Asia: Tugur (Sea of Okhotsk) and Amur southward to Yangtze and Fujian. In Amur, historically known from the middle and lower Amur (from Tygda Rive down to the estuary) with tributaries Zeya, Sungari, Ussuri and the Khanka Lake basin. Reported from Shilka in the upper Amur where it is introduced (Ref. 82587). Introduced in Europe (Ref. 59043). At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 2058).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm ?, range 6 - 8 cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 2059); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 250.00 g (Ref. 80031); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 7 Tahun (Ref. 56557)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 6 - 8; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 9-11; Duri dubur 1-3; Sirip dubur lunak: 7 - 10. Distinguished from other European freshwater species by the following characters: 2 dorsals with the first with 6-8 simple rays, and the second with 2-3 simple and 8-12 branched rays; no spines on first dorsal; no barbels; pelvics not fused into a disc; no lateral line canals; males during spawning period, develop a hump on nape and become black with bright green spots on body and unpaired fins (Ref. 59043).
Occurs in lentic waters, lakes, ponds, backwaters and marshes with dense underwater vegetation and avoids river stretches with fast and even slow current (Ref. 59043). Prefers stagnant rivers and bogs (Ref. 80031). Can tolerate poorly oxygenated water and able to survive in dried out or completely frozen water bodies by digging itself into mud where it hibernates. A voracious predatory fish (wide variety of invertebrates, tadpoles and fish) constituting a most serious threat to aquatic fauna wherever it occurs. In small water bodies; known to extirpate almost all other fish species and amphibian larvae. Spawns for the first time at 1-3 years and about 6.0 cm SL. Spawns several potions of eggs in May to June at 15-20°C. Elongated eggs (3.8 x 1.3 mm) with sticky filaments usually deposited in one row close to water surface on underwater structures such as roots, leaves and others. Males guard the eggs and pelagic larvae (Ref. 59043).
Spawns several portions of eggs (Ref. 59043).
Berg, L.S., 1965. Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. volume 3, 4th edition. Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd, Jerusalem. (Russian version published 1949). (Ref. 2058)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
ancaman kepada manusia
Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil; Akuarium: potensial
AcuanBudidaya airprofil budidaya airStrainGenetikaFrekuensi alelDiturunkanPenyakit-penyakitPengolahanNutrientsMass conversion
mitraGambarStamps, Coins Misc.Suara-suaraCiguateraKecepatanTipe renangArea insangOtolithsOtakPenglihatan / visi
muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00414 - 0.02201), b=3.10 (2.91 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.54 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 8.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): Rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 4.5 - 14 tahun (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .