Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Nước ngọt; Thuộc về nước lợ gần đáy; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 20; di cư trong nước ngọt (Ref. 51243). Temperate; 2°C - 20°C (Ref. 1672); 73°N - 37°N, 10°W - 179°E
Eurasia: basins of Atlantic, North and Baltic Seas, Arctic and northern Pacific Ocean, from Garonne (France) eastward to Anadyr and Amur drainages and Korea; Ireland (possibly introduced), Great Britain northward to 58°N. Scandinavia and Russia northernmost extremity, Rhône drainage. Recorded from upper and middle Volga and Ural drainages, Lake Balkhash (Kazakhstan) and upper Syr-Darya drainage (Aral basin), but else identifications need verification. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction. Several species are confused under Phoxinus phoxinus.
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm 5.1, range 5 - 5.8 cm
Max length : 14.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 556); common length : 7.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 556); Tuổi cực đại được báo cáo: 11 các năm (Ref. 59043)
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 3; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 6-8; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 3; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 6 - 8; Động vật có xương sống: 38 - 40. Diagnosed from its congeners in Europe by having lateral line usually reaching beyond anal fin base, a midlateral row of vertically elongated blotches whose depth is about 1/3-1/2 of body depth at same position, often fused in a midlateral stripe (in preserved individuals), caudal peduncle depth 2.6-3.1 times in its length, patches of breast scales separated by unscaled area or (rarely) connected anteriorly by 1-2 rows of scales, snout length 29-34% HL ( 1.1-1.4 times eye diameter), and anal fin origin in front of base of last dorsal ray (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196).
Gregarious (Ref. 2196). Found in a wide range of cold and well oxygenated habitats from small, fast-flowing streams to large Nordic lowland rivers and from small upland lakes to large oligotrophic lakes. Usually occurs in association with salmonid fishes (Ref. 59043). Feeds on algae, plant debris (in rivers), mollusks, crustaceans and insects (Ref. 30578). Spawns over clean gravel areas in flowing water or on wave-washed shores of lakes. Overwinters in coarse substrate or in deep pools with low current (Ref. 59043). Migrates upstream for spawning in shallow gravel areas. Important laboratory fish, for research on sensory organs of fishes. Mean maximum age is 6 years (Ref. 41616). Locally threatened due to pollution and excessive stocking of species of Salmo (Ref. 59043).
Males and females form school separately and arrive on the spawning site at differen times. Spawn over clean gravel areas in flowing water or on wave-washed shores of lakes. Deposit eggs in shallow water on sand or gravel bottom which hatch in 4-5 days at 18°C. Females lay sticky eggs deep into clean gravel (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Potential pest (Ref. 13686)
Các nghề cá: buôn bán nhỏ; Bể nuôi cá: Tính thương mại; mồi: usually
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Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00630 - 0.01261), b=3.07 (2.97 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179
): Trung bình, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 1.4 - 4.4 năm (tm=1-6; tmax=13; fec=200).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .