Neotrygon kuhlii, Blue-spotted stingray : fisheries, aquarium

Neotrygon kuhlii (Müller & Henle, 1841)

Blue-spotted stingray
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Neotrygon kuhlii   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Neotrygon kuhlii (Blue-spotted stingray)
Neotrygon kuhlii
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Populärnamn | synonymer | Catalog of Fishes(Släkte, Arter) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (hajar och rockor) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays) > Neotrygoninae
Etymology: More on authors: Müller & Henle.

Issue
Formerly a widespread species, but forms a species complex with three other species. Information (data from references) collated undergoing modifications (in progress).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; marina revassocierade; djupintervall 0 - 170 m (Ref. 89055), usually ? - 90 m (Ref. 9840). Tropical; 33°N - 33°S, 28°E - 154°W

Utbredning Länder | FAO områden | Ekosystem | Förekomster | Point map | Utplanteringar | Faunafri

Southwest Pacific: Solomon Islands, but probably more widespread in Oceania (limits of its distribution need to be defined).

Forms a species complex with Neotrygon australiae (Australia, New Guinea and eastern Indonesia), N. caeruleopunctata (Indian Ocean), and N. orientale (North-West Pacific).

Length at first maturity / Size / Vikt / Age

Maturity: Lm 27.6, range 12 - 46.5 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 5578)

Short description Morfologi | Morfometri

This medium-sized Neotrygon of the kuhlii-complex (reaching at least 30 cm DW) is distinguished by the following set of characters: disc is broader than long, its width ca. 1.2 times length; pectoral apices are narrowly rounded; snout rather fleshy, broadly angular, its angle ca. 107°, its length 1.7-2.1 times interorbital width; maximum width is relatively well back on disc, the length from snout tip to pectoral-fin insertion 1.8-1.9 times and disc width 2.5-2.6 times horizontal distance from snout tip to maximum disc width; preoral length is 2.4-2.8 times mouth width; internasal distance is 1.5-1.8 in prenasal length; interspiracular distance is 13-15% DW; nostril length is 2.8-4.1% DW; nasal curtain width is 8-8.3% DW; mouth small, its width 6.4-6.8% DW; horizontal distance from cloaca to caudal sting base ca. 55% of disc length; nuchal region with thornlets, none from tail in all sizes; no dermal denticles; 113 pectoral-fin radials (based on new specimen); 133 total vertebral centra (including synarcual), 39 trunk centra (including synarcual); presence of blue spots that are very small and sparse, largest spot on disc 0.3-0.5 times eye width; median belt with 0-6 (mean 3.0) blue spots, largest ~2.1% DW; pronounced mask-like marking, not covered with dark peppery spots; ventral surface of disc and pelvic fins with broad dark greyish submarginal bands; when fresh, ventral tail fold and adjacent tail bluish grey (Ref. 116741).

Biologi     Ordlista (t.ex. epibenthic)

A solitary species found on sandy bottoms near rocky or coral reefs (Ref. 12951). Usually found in deeper water but moves onto the reef flat and into shallow lagoons at high tide (Ref. 12951). Occasionally covers itself with sand, leaving only its eyes and tail visible (Ref. 37816). Feeds on crabs and shrimps (Ref. 5578). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). The venomous spine can inflict a painful wound (Ref.4690). Caught in very large quantities in the bottom trawl, trammel and fish trap fisheries. Utilized for its meat but of limited value due to its small size (Ref. 58048). It is parasitised by the monogenean Dendromonocotyle kuhlii on the dorsal skin surface (Ref. 124051).

Life cycle and mating behavior Könsmognad | Reproduktion | Lek | Ägg | Fecundity | Larver

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Litters size at birth 16 cm (Ref. 37816); Java form born at 11-16 cm WD, Bali form born at ~17 cm WD. Gives birth to litters of 1-2 pups; no reproductive synchronicity (Ref. 58048).

Main reference Upload your references | referenser | Koordinator : McEachran, John | Medarbetare

Last, P.R., White, W.T. and B. Séret, 2016. Taxonomic status of maskrays of the Neotrygon kuhlii species complex (Myliobatoidei: Dasyatidae) with the description of three new species from the Indo-West Pacific. Zootaxa 4083(4):533-561. (Ref. 116741)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)

  Data deficient (DD) ; Date assessed: 22 June 2017

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 4690)





Human uses

Fiskeri: kommersiell; Akvarium: Kommersiell
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Ytterligare information

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Internet-källor

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Släkte, Arter | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Nationella databaser | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Offentliga akvarier | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, sök | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 23.9 - 29, mean 27.8 °C (based on 2546 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00336 - 0.03418), b=3.12 (2.87 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245).
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 8.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resiliens (Ref. 120179):  Mycket låg, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid mer än 14 år (Fec=1-3).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):   (0 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 18 [3, 103] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.487 [0.089, 1.935] mg/100g ; Protein = 21.4 [18.7, 24.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.0949 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 27.9 [7.4, 95.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 41.4 [9.8, 179.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.926 [0.244, 3.588] mg/100g (wet weight);