Atherina presbyter, Sand smelt : fisheries, gamefish

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Atherina presbyter Cuvier, 1829

Sand smelt
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This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Atherina presbyter   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Atherina presbyter (Sand smelt)
Atherina presbyter
Picture by Østergaard, T.

Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes(Genus, Soort(en)) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Atheriniformes (Silversides) > Atherinidae (Silversides) > Atherininae
Etymology: Atherina: Greek, atherina, the Greek name for the eperlane; 1770 (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Cuvier.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien; brakwater; oceanodroom (Ref. 51243).   Subtropical; 60°N - 14°N, 26°W - 17°E

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Eastern Atlantic: Kattegat (rare) and British Isles to Canary Islands, Mauritania and Cape Verde, also western Mediterranean.

Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 30578); Maximaal vermelde leeftijd: 4 jaren (Ref. 232)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 7 - 9; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 114; Anale stekels 1; Anale zachte stralen: 14 - 17. Scales in longitudinal series 52-57. Vertebrae 46-52 (Morocco), 49-52 (the Netherlands). No pyloric appendages. A large, characteristic, brilliant silvery stripe running along flanks from head to tail, often outlined in black. No true lateral line (Ref. 232). Eye diameter same with snout length (Ref. 35388).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Small pelagic fishes in coastal areas and estuaries. Schooling, seasonal migrations in the Atlantic. Feeds on carnivorous small crustaceans and fish larvae (Ref. 5980). Reproduces in spring and summer (Ref. 30578).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Spawning occurs in midsummer in English Channel and North Sea.

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : Dyer, Brian S. | Medewerkers

Maugé, L.A., 1990. Atherinidae. p. 604-605. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4499)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 123251)

  Niet bedreigd (LC) ; Date assessed: 20 May 2014

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Harmless





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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 9.2 - 20.3, mean 11.5 °C (based on 348 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00328 - 0.00878), b=3.12 (2.98 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.43 se; based on food items.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  Hoog, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd minder dan 15 maanden (K=0.70; tmax=4).
Prior r = 1.00, 95% CL = 0.66 - 1.50, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 226 [115, 454] mg/100g ; Iron = 3.13 [1.72, 5.74] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.7 [19.0, 22.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.663 [0.285, 1.470] g/100g ; Selenium = 21.3 [8.9, 48.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 26.8 [8.2, 85.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.43 [0.99, 2.21] mg/100g (wet weight);