分類 / Names
俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(屬, 種) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Petromyzonti > Petromyzontiformes
(Lampreys) 七鰓鰻目 (Lampreys)
(Northern lampreys) 七鰓鰻科 (Northern lampreys)
Etymology: Lampetra: Latin, lambere = lick + Greek,petra = stone, with allusion to the lamprey attaching itself to stones (Ref. 45335). Latin, lambendis petris, which means to suck rocks (Ref. 89241); planeri: Named after J.J. Planer, German naturalist of 18th Century. More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水 居於水底的; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). 溫帶; 1°C - 15°C (Ref. 12315); 68°N - 36°N, 10°W - 50°E
Europe: Great Britain north to Scottish highlands, rivers draining to North Sea north to Scotland and about Stavanger (Norway), Baltic Sea basin, Atlantic as far south as Adour drainage (France, Spain) and isolated populations in Sado, Tagus and Douro drainages (Portugal), Mediterranean basin in France and western Italy (south to about Cilento drainage). Locally in Ireland, upper Volga, upper Danube and some of their tributaries and Pescara drainage on Adriatic coast of Italy. Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
歐洲: 瑞典到法國。 已經變得非常稀有在法國東南方; 仍然能被發現於 Sorgues(Ouveze 河的支流) 與在 Lez 中.(參考文獻 5575) 或許受益於一條環境的調節通過了 8/12/88之上.(法國, 參考文獻 2163) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群). 來自葡萄牙的報告需要證實。 (參考文獻 11237) 在荷蘭被保護。 (參考文獻 12269)
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡
Maturity: Lm 12.5, range 5 - 16 cm
Max length : 20.5 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 88166); common length : 16.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 2163); 最大年齡: 7 年 (Ref. 12315)
背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 0. Poorly developed fins, dorsal fins in contact in mature adults, blue-green back, yellow flanks, white ventral portion (Ref. 2163). Diagnostic features: Adults: 8.6-17.0 cm TL. Body proportions, as percentage of TL (based on 16 specimens measuring 10.6-13.3 cm TL): prebranchial length, 10.9-12.6; branchial length, 7.5-9.9; trunk length, 44.4-53.3; tail length, 25.4-31.4; eye length, 2.3-2.9; disc length, 5.2-7.0. Urogenital papilla length, as a percentage of branchial length, in ten spawning males measuring 11.1-14.0 cm TL, 21.4-52.6. Trunk myomeres, 60-65. Dentition: supraoral lamina, 2 unicuspid teeth; infraoral lamina, 7-9 teeth, usually all unicuspid, but occasionally one lateralmost bicuspid; 3 endolaterals on each side; endolateral formula, typically 2-3-2; 2 rows of anterials; first row of anterials, 9 unicuspid teeth; exolaterals absent; posterials absent; transverse lingual lamina, 9-13 unicuspid teeth, the median one enlarged; longitudinal lingual laminae each with about 9 unicuspid teeth. Velar tentacles, 4-6, with tubercles. Body coloration (preserved), dorsal and lateral aspects grayish, ventral surface whitish, dorsal fins and caudal fin yellowish. Some specimens display a prominent dark blotch at the apex of the second dorsal fin. The iris is yellow. Lateral line neuromasts unpigmented. Unpigmented caudal fin except for spawning individuals in which it is "weakly peppered". Caudal fin shape, spade-like (Ref. 89241). Sigmund Freud (Ref. 72450, 72451 ) described the development of the central nervous system of brook lamprey.
發展不良的鰭 , 背鰭接觸在一起在成熟的成魚又藍綠色背面，黃色的側面, 白色的腹部分。
Adults are found in the lowland, piedmont and montane zone in clear, well oxygenated brooks (Ref. 59043). They live exclusively in freshwater; in middle and upper reaches of small streams and rivers, occasionally in lakes. Larvae lie buried in the substrate while adults live in the open water (Ref. 57699). Sexually mature adults have been observed burrowing in fine sand (Ref. 89241). Larvae of this species can serve as mid-term bio-indicators (Ref. 57699). They live in detritus-rich sands or clay sediments (Ref. 59043). Larval life is 5+ to 6+ years, with the smaller individuals of the latter year class delaying metamorphosis by one year. Metamorphosis occurs in September in the Czech Republic (Ref. 89241). Filter feeding larvae, non-feeding adults (= non-parasitic). Reproduction takes place upstream, from April to May (Ref. 30578). Duration of the life cycle is believed to last 6 years on average. Communal spawning in the same redd by L. fluviatilis and L. planeri has been reported in the River Tywi Basin, Wales (UK), in April, at a water temperature of 11 °C. Both species participated in constructing a redd about 23 cm in diameter and 5-8 cm deep, consisting of pebbles, gravel, and coarse sand. In the river Yeo, England (UK), peak spawning activity varies between 26 March and 24 April when water temperatures reach 10-11 °C. As the spawning season progresses, male:female ratios shift from 3.54:1 to 1.60:1. In the Czech Republic, both sexes participate in the redd construction in shady areas of streams that are 1-8 m in width and a few centimeters to 0.8 m in depth. Spawning occurs between 1 and 17 June at water currents 1-4 m/s and water temperatures 10-16 °C (Ref. 89241). Because of its small size and the mediocre quality of its meat, it is rarely fished. The larvae are utilized as bait (Ref. 30578).
只生活於淡水; 在小溪流與河川的中上游中, 偶見於湖。 仔魚將自己埋於底土然而成魚住在開放水域。 這種的仔魚能當作期中生化指示器使用。 (參考文獻 57699) 濾食性仔魚，非寄生性成魚.(= 非寄生的) 繁殖發生在上游, 從四月到五月。 由於它的體型小與它的肉的不好不壞品質, 它被很少地魚。 仔魚被利用如誘餌。 (參考文獻 30578)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | 卵 | 孕卵數 | 仔魚
The female attaches with her oral disc to a rock at the upstream end of the nest. The male attaches to the back of her head using his oral disc and wraps his tail around her trunk region in such a way as to have each others urogenital papilla in close proximity and through muscular contraction of his body assists in the extrusion of the eggs. They vibrate
vigorously for a few seconds. This results in the release of their gametes and disturbance of the substrate, which partially buries the fertilized eggs.
They build small depressions in the gravel in the river bed in which they spawn. Adults die after spawning. Larvae hatch after 3-4 days.歐洲: 瑞典到法國。 已經變得非常稀有在法國東南方; 仍然能被發現於 Sorgues(Ouveze 河的支流) 與在 Lez 中.(參考文獻 5575) 或許受益於一條環境的調節通過了 8/12/88之上.(法國, 參考文獻 2163) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群). 來自葡萄牙的報告需要證實。 (參考文獻 11237) 在荷蘭被保護。 (參考文獻 12269)
Hardisty, M.W., 1986. Lampetra planeri (Bloch 1784). p. 279-304. In J. Holcík (ed.) The Freshwater fishes of Europe. Vol. 1, Part 1. Petromyzontiformes. (Ref. 12315)
漁業: 沒有興趣; 水族館: 公眾的水族館; 誘餌: usually
合作者照片Stamps, Coins Misc.聲音神經毒速度泳型鰓區Otoliths腦重體重比眼睛色素
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00148 (0.00079 - 0.00278), b=2.94 (2.77 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
營養階層 (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 6.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.16; tm=6-7; tmax=7; Fec=800 (semelparous)).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100) .