Gymnocephalus cernua, Ruffe : fisheries, gamefish, bait

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Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ruffe
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Gymnocephalus cernua
Picture by Bednarzik, J.

Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinônimos | Catalog of Fishes(Gênero, Espécies) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Perciformes/Percoidei (Perchs) > Percidae (Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Gymnocephalus: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; gua doce; estuarina bentopelgico; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12; potamdromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 2 - 85 m (Ref. 121625).   Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 13371); 74°N - 43°N, 6°W - 169°E

Distribuição Países | Áreas da FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Europe: Caspian, Black, Baltic and North Sea basins; Great Britain; north to about 69° N in Scandinavia. Asia: Aral Sea basin, Arctic Ocean basin eastward to Kolyma drainage. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 10.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 556); common length : 12.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 556); peso máx. publicado: 400.00 g (Ref. 556); idade máx. registrada: 10 anos (Ref. 59043)

Descrição suscinta Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 11 - 19; Raios dorsais (total): 11-16; Espinhos anais 2; Raios anais : 5 - 6; Vértebras: 35 - 36. Distinguished uniquely from its congeners by its body depth 24-27% SL. Differs further from other members of the genus by the combination of having a flank yellowish with numerous, small, irregular, dark blotches and having 11-16 dorsal spines (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 16 to 17 rays (Ref. 40476). Dorsal fins are fused. Color brownish with dark spots (Ref. 35388).

Biologia     Glossário (p.ex. epibenthic)

Inhabits eutrophic lakes, lowland and piedmont rivers. Most abundant in estuaries of large rivers, brackish lakes with salinities up to 10-12 ppt and reservoirs. In general, its abundance increases with increased eutrophication (Ref. 59043). Reported to prefer still or slow-flowing water with soft bottom and without vegetation (Ref. 59043) and deep water with deposits of sand and gravel (Ref. 9696). Can tolerate some degradation of the environment (Ref. 30578). Can co-exist in deep lakes with Perca fluviatilis. Both species partly occur at different depths with Gymnocephalus cernua being more abundant in deeper layers (Ref. 59043). The membranous external walls of the head canals of this species provide high directional sensitivity; can feed at night in the dark using the lateral line system; feeds on zooplankton, chironomids, oligochaetes and amphipods (Ref. 10999). Pelagic in coastal lakes and tidal estuaries, preying on zooplankton and fish. Spawns on a variety of substrates at depths of about 3 m or less (Ref. 59043). White to yellow eggs in sticky strands are found on rocks and weed in shallow water (Ref. 41678). Used as bait for pike (Ref. 6258). Females live up to 10 year while males up to 7 years (Ref. 59043).

Ciclo de vida ou comportamento de acasalamento Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Eggs turn adhesive on contact with water and stick to stones or plants. Females lay eggs in two or more portions, usually separated by about 30 days in summer. First portion of eggs is larger the second portion. Larvae without or with only a brief, pelagic larval stage, switching early to benthic life, secretive and solitary, not forming schools. Larval survival is poor below 10°C and above 20°C (Ref. 59043).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador | Colaboradores

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 123251)

  Segura ou pouco preocupante (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para os humanos

  Potential pest





Uso pelos humanos

Pescarias: pouco comercial; peixe esportivo: sim; isca: usually
FAO - pescarias: desembarques; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Mais informação

Idade/Tamanho
Crescimento
Peso-comprimento
Comprimento-comprimento
Frequências de comprimento
Morfometria
Morfologia
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Dinâmica larval
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Aquacultura
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Estimates based on models

Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00892 - 0.01071), b=2.99 (2.96 - 3.02), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.57 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.8 (2.3 - 5.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 21 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  médio(a), tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.1-0.48; tm=1-2).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 44 [20, 91] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.287 [0.151, 0.552] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.9 [15.5, 18.5] % ; Omega3 = 1 [0, 3] g/100g ; Selenium = 11.5 [4.0, 28.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 54.9 [14.4, 216.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.02 [0.58, 1.68] mg/100g (wet weight);