Gymnocephalus cernua, Ruffe : fisheries, gamefish, bait

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Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ruffe
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Gymnocephalus cernua
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Perciformes/Percoidei (Perchs) 鱸形目 (Perchs) > Percidae (Perches) 鱸科 (Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Gymnocephalus: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 2 - 85 m (Ref. 121625).   溫帶; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 13371); 74°N - 43°N, 6°W - 169°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe: Caspian, Black, Baltic and North Sea basins; Great Britain; north to about 69° N in Scandinavia. Asia: Aral Sea basin, Arctic Ocean basin eastward to Kolyma drainage. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
歐洲: 法國到西伯利亞東部與到科力馬河河。 最近在湖上方與密西根州中建立了。 (參考文獻 3814) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 10.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); common length : 12.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大體重: 400.00 g (Ref. 556); 最大年齡: 10 年 (Ref. 59043)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 11 - 19; 背的軟條 (總數): 11-16; 臀棘 2; 臀鰭軟條: 5 - 6; 脊椎骨: 35 - 36. Distinguished uniquely from its congeners by its body depth 24-27% SL. Differs further from other members of the genus by the combination of having a flank yellowish with numerous, small, irregular, dark blotches and having 11-16 dorsal spines (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 16 to 17 rays (Ref. 40476). Dorsal fins are fused. Color brownish with dark spots (Ref. 35388).
尾鰭有 16 到 17個鰭條。 (參考文獻 40476) 背鰭被融合。 色彩褐色的有深色的斑點.(參考文獻 35388)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits eutrophic lakes, lowland and piedmont rivers. Most abundant in estuaries of large rivers, brackish lakes with salinities up to 10-12 ppt and reservoirs. In general, its abundance increases with increased eutrophication (Ref. 59043). Reported to prefer still or slow-flowing water with soft bottom and without vegetation (Ref. 59043) and deep water with deposits of sand and gravel (Ref. 9696). Can tolerate some degradation of the environment (Ref. 30578). Can co-exist in deep lakes with Perca fluviatilis. Both species partly occur at different depths with Gymnocephalus cernua being more abundant in deeper layers (Ref. 59043). The membranous external walls of the head canals of this species provide high directional sensitivity; can feed at night in the dark using the lateral line system; feeds on zooplankton, chironomids, oligochaetes and amphipods (Ref. 10999). Pelagic in coastal lakes and tidal estuaries, preying on zooplankton and fish. Spawns on a variety of substrates at depths of about 3 m or less (Ref. 59043). White to yellow eggs in sticky strands are found on rocks and weed in shallow water (Ref. 41678). Used as bait for pike (Ref. 6258). Females live up to 10 year while males up to 7 years (Ref. 59043).

棲息於溪流的湖,靜止的池水與邊緣。 偏愛深水域,有沙與碎石沈積層的地方.(參考文獻 9696) 這種的頭部管道的膜狀外部牆壁提供高的方向敏感; 能在黑暗中吃在晚上使用側線系統; 吃浮游動物,寶刀魚,蠕蟲與片腳類動物。 (參考文獻 10999) 在黏黏的濱的白色到黃色的卵在淺水區中棲息於岩石與雜草。 (參考文獻 41678) 作為釣矛的魚餌了。 (參考文獻 6258) 能容忍一些環境的惡化。 (參考文獻 30578)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Eggs turn adhesive on contact with water and stick to stones or plants. Females lay eggs in two or more portions, usually separated by about 30 days in summer. First portion of eggs is larger the second portion. Larvae without or with only a brief, pelagic larval stage, switching early to benthic life, secretive and solitary, not forming schools. Larval survival is poor below 10°C and above 20°C (Ref. 59043).歐洲: 法國到西伯利亞東部與到科力馬河河。 最近在湖上方與密西根州中建立了。 (參考文獻 3814) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  潛能有害之物





人類使用

漁業: 低經濟; 游釣魚種: 是的; 誘餌: usually
FAO - 漁業: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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參考文獻
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Otoliths
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眼睛色素

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網路資源

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 檢查 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - 漁業: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因組, 核甘 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 國家資料庫 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公眾的水族館 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 樹狀分類階層 | Wikipedia: , 搜尋 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 動物學的記錄

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00892 - 0.01071), b=2.99 (2.96 - 3.02), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.57 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.8 (2.3 - 5.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 21 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.1-0.48; tm=1-2).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 44 [20, 91] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.287 [0.151, 0.552] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.9 [15.5, 18.5] % ; Omega3 = 1 [0, 3] g/100g ; Selenium = 11.5 [4.0, 28.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 54.9 [14.4, 216.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.02 [0.58, 1.68] mg/100g (wet weight);