Terapon jarbua, Jarbua terapon : fisheries, aquaculture

Terapon jarbua (Forsskål 1775)

Jarbua terapon
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Terapon jarbua   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Terapon jarbua
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Centrarchiformes (Basses) 鱸形目 (Basses) > Terapontidae (Grunters or tigerperches) 鯻科 (Grunters or tigerperches)
  More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; 降海洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 20 - 350 m (Ref. 58488).   熱帶; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959); 36°N - 35°S, 20°E - 167°W

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), Australia, and Lord Howe Island.
印度-太平洋: 紅海而且東非到美屬薩摩亞, 北至日本南部, 南至阿拉弗拉海 (參考文獻 9819) ,澳洲與羅得豪島。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 13.0, range 9 - 17 cm
Max length : 36.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 9710); common length : 25.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 4967)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 11 - 12; 背的軟條 (總數): 9-11; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 7 - 10. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body oblong moderately and laterally compressed, greatest body depth 2.5-3.2 in SL; head length 2.3-2.6 in SL; lower opercular spine extending well beyond the opercular flap; posttemporal bone exposed and serrate posteriorly; pectoral fin rays 13-14; gill rakers 6-8 +13-16 = 19-24; pored lateral line scales 75-100; horizontal scale rows above lateral line 13-17; caudal fin emarginate. Colour of body silvery white with 3-4 curved stripes from the nape to the hind part of the body, the lowermost continuing across the middle of the caudal fin; spinous part of dorsal fin with a blackish blotch dorsally on membranes between third and sixth spines; caudal fin with stripes, the lobes with dark tips (Ref. 48274, 90102).
延伸的下鰓蓋棘越過鰓蓋。 後期暫生骨在後部地暴露出來與鋸齒狀的。 體色是黃褐色上方, 腹面乳黃色的, 後頸深色的; 頭部 , 身體而且鰭有與彩虹色的光輝。 三或四條彎曲的深褐色的條紋跑身體的從後頸到後部部份,最低的越過尾鰭的中央繼續。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Found over shallow sandy bottoms, in the vicinity of river mouths. Enter estuaries and rivers (Ref. 1479, 11230, 44894, 48635). Adults in loose aggregations (Ref. 48635). Juveniles common in sandy intertidal areas; often in tidal pools. Minimum depth reported is 20 m (Ref. 12260). Found in schools (Ref. 9710). Omnivorous (Ref. 7300), feeding on fishes, insects, algae, and sand-dwelling invertebrates (Ref. 9710). Spawn in the sea and juveniles migrate into fresh water (Ref. 2847). Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205). Produce sound (Ref. 9137). Caught on all types of inshore fishing gear including gill nets, traps, handlines, and bottom trawls and marketed fresh and dried-salted (Ref. 48274).

發現在水淺的沙底部上., 在鄰近河口。 進入河口與河。 (參考文獻 1479,11230,44894,48635) 成魚形成鬆散的魚群.(參考文獻 48635) 稚魚常見於沙的潮間帶的區域; 常見於潮池中。 報告的最小量 epth 是 20 公尺。 (參考文獻 12260) 成群出現.(參考文獻 9710) 雜食性 (參考文獻 7300), 吃魚,昆蟲,藻類, 而且棲息於砂中的無脊椎動物。 (參考文獻 9710) 產卵於海洋中,而且稚魚迴游進入淡水之內。 (參考文獻 2847) 發出聲音。 (參考文獻 9137) 在市場上銷售生鮮地., 乾燥或鹽醃.(參考文獻 12693)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205).印度-太平洋: 紅海而且東非到美屬薩摩亞, 北至日本南部, 南至阿拉弗拉海 (參考文獻 9819) ,澳洲與羅得豪島。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 20 June 2016

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 低經濟; 養殖: 商業性
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生態毒物學
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孕卵數

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Stamps, Coins Misc.
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 17.6 - 27.9, mean 23.7 °C (based on 917 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.01323 - 0.02082), b=3.00 (2.93 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.24).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.