Actinopteri > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) 鱸形目 (Various families in series Eupercaria)
(Drums or croakers) 石首魚科 (Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Pseudotolithus: Greek, pseudes = false + greek, otos = ear + Greek, lithos = stone (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; 深度上下限 - 100 m (Ref. 3593), usually 50 - 100 m (Ref. 26999). 熱帶; 0°C - ; 17°N - 6°S, 17°W - 14°E (Ref. 54743)
Eastern Atlantic: west coast of Africa, from Senegal to at least southern Angola (Ref. 3593, 57396, 81656).
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡
Maturity: Lm 19.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5752); common length : 30.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3593)
型態特徵 | 形態測量圖
背棘 (總數): 11; 背的軟條 (總數): 29-35; 臀棘 2; 臀鰭軟條: 6 - 7. Diagnosis: medium-sized fish, fusiform/elongate and laterally compressed (Ref. 57396, 81656). Head and snout short (Ref. 57396). Eyes rather large (Ref. 57396, 81656), 3.6-4.6 times in HL, but this character is difficult to use for identification because of allometry (Ref. 81656). Mouth large and oblique (Ref. 57396, 81656), subterminal (Ref. 57396). Maxilla extending beyond posterior eye border (Ref. 81656). Teeth villiform, set in narrow bands in both jaws; 5 marginal pores on snout and 6 mental pores (Ref. 57396). Gill rakers long (Ref. 57396, 81656) and slender (Ref. 57396), longer than gill filaments at angle of first gill arch (Ref. 57396, 81656), 11-16/1/5-8 (total 19-25) on 1st gill arch (Ref. 81656). Lower part of 1st gill arch with 0-5 reduced additional gill rakers, upper part with 0-3 reduced additional ones; preopercular edge denticulate, with a few strong spines in the corner (Ref. 81656). Dorsal fin long, deeply notched (Ref. 57396), with 10 spines in 1st part and 1 spine and 29-35 soft rays in 2nd part (Ref. 81656). 2nd anal fin spine very strong, about as long as 1st soft ray (Ref. 57396, 81656) and comprised less than twice in head length (Ref. 57396). Pectoral fins long, 23.6-29.6% SL (Ref. 81656). Caudal fin more or less pointed (Ref. 57396, 81656) or rhomboidal (Ref. 81656). Scales ctenoid on body, cycloid on breast and head; lateral line extending to hind margin of caudal fin; swim bladder carrot-shaped, its front end with a pair of appendages subdividing into a group of short anterior branches and a bundle of 5-6 slender tubes extending backwards over half the length of swim bladder (Ref. 57396).
Coloration: general colour silver-grey with
a reddish sheen (Ref. 81656), back olivaceous brown (Ref. 57396) with series of dark dots, belly light, yellowish during reproduction period (Ref. 57396, 81656). Dorsal and caudal fins greyish (Ref. 81656). Spinous part of dorsal fin dark, soft part lighter, with 2-3 longitudinal series of dark dots; pelvics and anal fin yellowish (Ref. 57396, 81656).
Found in coastal waters over mud bottom (Ref. 3593, 57396, 81656), very close to the shore (Ref. 57396). Also enters estuaries and coastal lagoons (Ref. 3593, 81656), where reproduction takes place (Ref. 57396). Moves farther offshore to about 100 m for spawning during rainy season from December to February; feeds on (juvenile) fish, shrimps (Ref. 28587, 81656) and other crustaceans (Ref. 81656).
發現於在泥底上的沿岸水域了, 也進入河口與岸邊潟湖。 移動更遠的外海到大約 100 公尺在雨季從十二月到二月期間進行產卵。 吃魚與蝦。 (參考文獻 28587)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | 卵 | 孕卵數 | 仔魚
Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)
漁業: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
合作者照片Stamps, Coins Misc.聲音神經毒速度泳型鰓區Otoliths腦重體重比眼睛色素
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.3 - 20.9, mean 19.2 °C (based on 24 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00386 - 0.01130), b=3.07 (2.92 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
營養階層 (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.70 se; based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.27-0.4;).
Prior r = 0.52, 95% CL = 0.34 - 0.78, Based on 3 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 188 [98, 348] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.02 [0.62, 1.95] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [17.1, 19.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.503 [0.247, 1.041] g/100g ; Selenium = 73 [32, 161] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 21.2 [7.3, 62.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.25 [0.83, 2.00] mg/100g (wet weight);