Epinephelus aeneus, White grouper : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish
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Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817)

White grouper
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Epinephelus aeneus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus aeneus (White grouper)
Epinephelus aeneus
Picture by Dammous, S.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) 鱸形目 (Groupers) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 20 - 200 m (Ref. 3589). 亞熱帶的; 39°N - 16°S, 17°W - 60°E (Ref. 54435)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: along the west coast of Africa to southern Angola (Ref. 5222, 57293), including the southern Mediterranean (Ref. 5222). First record from Corsica, France in 2012 (Ref. 95840). Records from the Canary Islands and Cape Verde are unsubstantiated (Ref. 5222).
東大西洋: 沿著到安哥拉南部的非洲西岸,包括地中海南部。 記錄從加納利群島與維德角是未證實的。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 55.0, range 50 - 60 cm
Max length : 120 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5222); common length : 60.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 26999); 最大体重: 25.0 kg (Ref. 5222)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 10 - 11; 背的软条 (总数): 14-16; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 7 - 9. Diagnosis: depth of body less than head length, depth 3.0-3.6 times in SL; head length 2.5-2.9 times in SL; interorbital area convex; preopercle angular, 3.6- large spines at the angle, lowermost directed ventrally; posterior nostril slightly bigger than anterior nostril; maxilla reaches nearly to vertical at rear edge of eye; pelvic fin origin below base of pectoral fins; rounded caudal fin; body scales ctenoid (Ref. 89707).

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults are found on rocky or mud-sand bottom; juveniles have been taken in coastal lagoons and estuaries (Ref. 5222, 57293). In the west African waters, diet comprise of fishes (58%), stomatopods (21%), crabs (10%), and cephalopods (10%). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite. The seasonal migration of the species off the coast of Senegal is influenced by the seasonal upwelling off Senegal and Mauritania. Utilized fresh and smoked (Ref. 9987). Highly esteemed in the market of West Africa (Ref. 5377).

成鱼栖息于岩石的或泥-沙底部; 稚鱼曾经采自岸边泻湖与河口。 在西方中非洲水域, 食性鱼 (58%) ,口足目甲壳类 (21%) ,螃蟹 (10%) 与头足类动物 (10%) 包含. 它是一个雌性先熟的雌雄同体。 此鱼种的季节性迁移外海的塞内盖尔的海岸被影响藉由季节性的涌升流塞内盖尔外海与毛里塔尼亚。 熏制或新鲜使用.(参考文献 9987) 在非洲西方部的市场中深受喜爱的。 (参考文献 5377)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Most females change sex at about 9 kg, but smaller males (of 3 to 5 kg) are occasionally found. Total potential fecundity was estimated to range from 789,436 ova in a 44 cm SL fish of 2.2 kg to 12,589,242 ova in a 87 cm SL fish of 12.6 kg. In Tunisia, sex change occurs at 10 to 13 years (6 to 15 kg, 80 to 110 cm TL).東大西洋: 沿著到安哥拉南部的非洲西岸,包括地中海南部。 記錄從加納利群島與維德角是未證實的。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 125652)

  临近濒危 (NT) (A2bd); Date assessed: 18 November 2016

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 实验的; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO - 渔业: landings, 物种外形; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | 周边海洋

更多信息

俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
参考文献
养殖
养殖信息
品种
遗传学
基因序列
遗传率
疾病
加工
Nutrients
Mass conversion
合作者
照片
Stamps, Coins Misc.
声音
神经毒
速度
泳型
鳃区
Otoliths
脑重体重比
眼睛色素

工具

特别资料

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网络资源

AFORO (otoliths) | Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - 渔业: landings, 物种外形; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公众的水族馆 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 14.8 - 20.2, mean 17.1 °C (based on 122 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00984 - 0.01279), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.59 se; based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.15-0.25; tm=5-7; tmax=17; Fec>1 million).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 40.7 [17.2, 107.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.13 [0.48, 2.41] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [15.9, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.577 [0.260, 1.282] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.6 [14.1, 98.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27.5 [5.5, 133.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.966 [0.523, 1.798] mg/100g (wet weight);