Epinephelus aeneus, White grouper : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish
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Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817)

White grouper
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Epinephelus aeneus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus aeneus (White grouper)
Epinephelus aeneus
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Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinônimos | Catalog of Fishes(Gênero, Espécies) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas; estuarina demersal; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 20 - 200 m (Ref. 3589). Subtropical; 39°N - 16°S, 17°W - 60°E (Ref. 54435)

Distribuição Países | Áreas da FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: along the west coast of Africa to southern Angola (Ref. 5222, 57293), including the southern Mediterranean (Ref. 5222). First record from Corsica, France in 2012 (Ref. 95840). Records from the Canary Islands and Cape Verde are unsubstantiated (Ref. 5222).

Comprimento de primeira maturação / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 55.0, range 50 - 60 cm
Max length : 120 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 5222); common length : 60.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 26999); peso máx. publicado: 25.0 kg (Ref. 5222)

Descrição suscinta Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 10 - 11; Raios dorsais (total): 14-16; Espinhos anais 3; Raios anais : 7 - 9. Diagnosis: depth of body less than head length, depth 3.0-3.6 times in SL; head length 2.5-2.9 times in SL; interorbital area convex; preopercle angular, 3.6- large spines at the angle, lowermost directed ventrally; posterior nostril slightly bigger than anterior nostril; maxilla reaches nearly to vertical at rear edge of eye; pelvic fin origin below base of pectoral fins; rounded caudal fin; body scales ctenoid (Ref. 89707).

Biologia     Glossário (p.ex. epibenthic)

Adults are found on rocky or mud-sand bottom; juveniles have been taken in coastal lagoons and estuaries (Ref. 5222, 57293). In the west African waters, diet comprise of fishes (58%), stomatopods (21%), crabs (10%), and cephalopods (10%). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite. The seasonal migration of the species off the coast of Senegal is influenced by the seasonal upwelling off Senegal and Mauritania. Utilized fresh and smoked (Ref. 9987). Highly esteemed in the market of West Africa (Ref. 5377).

Ciclo de vida ou comportamento de acasalamento Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Most females change sex at about 9 kg, but smaller males (of 3 to 5 kg) are occasionally found. Total potential fecundity was estimated to range from 789,436 ova in a 44 cm SL fish of 2.2 kg to 12,589,242 ova in a 87 cm SL fish of 12.6 kg. In Tunisia, sex change occurs at 10 to 13 years (6 to 15 kg, 80 to 110 cm TL).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Colaboradores

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

Status na Lista Vermelha da UICN (Ref. 125652)

  Quase ameaçada (NT) (A2bd); Date assessed: 18 November 2016

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para os humanos

  Harmless





Uso pelos humanos

Pescarias: espécies comerciais; Aquacultura: experimental; peixe esportivo: sim
FAO - pescarias: desembarques, perfil da espécie; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Mais informação

Nomes comuns
Sinônimos
Metabolismo
Predadores
Ecotoxicologia
Reprodução
Maturidade
Desova
Agregação de desova
Fecundidade
Ovos
Desenvolvimento dos ovos
Referências
Aquacultura
Perfil para aquacultura
Estirpes
Genética
Frequências alélicas
Hereditariedade
Doenças
Processamento
Nutrients
Conversão de massa
Colaboradores
Fotos
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sons
Ciguatera
Velocidade
Tipo de natação
Área branquial
Otólitos
Cérebros
Visão

Ferramentas

Relatórios especiais

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Fontes da internet

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Checar Observador de Peixes (FishWatcher) | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Gênero, Espécies | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - pescarias: desembarques, perfil da espécie; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genoma, nucleotídeo | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Bases de dados nacionais | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Aquários públicos | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Árvore da vida | Wikipedia: Ir para, procura | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Registro zoológico

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 14.8 - 20.2, mean 17.1 °C (based on 122 cells).
Índice de diversidade filogenética (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00984 - 0.01279), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  médio(a), tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.15-0.25; tm=5-7; tmax=17; Fec>1 million).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 40.7 [17.2, 107.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.13 [0.48, 2.41] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [15.9, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.577 [0.260, 1.282] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.6 [14.1, 98.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27.5 [5.5, 133.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.966 [0.523, 1.798] mg/100g (wet weight);