Epinephelus aeneus, White grouper : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish
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Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817)

White grouper
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Epinephelus aeneus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus aeneus (White grouper)
Epinephelus aeneus
Picture by Dammous, S.

Classification / Names आम नाम | उपशब्द | Catalog of Fishes(वर्ग, प्रजाति) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range पारिस्थितिकी

; समुद्री; खारा ड़िमरसल; औशिनोड़िरोमस (Ref. 51243); गहराई सीमा 20 - 200 m (Ref. 3589). Subtropical; 39°N - 16°S, 17°W - 60°E (Ref. 54435)

वितरण देश | ऐफ ऐ ओ क्षेत्र | Ecosystems | संयोग | Point map | भूमिका | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: along the west coast of Africa to southern Angola (Ref. 5222, 57293), including the southern Mediterranean (Ref. 5222). First record from Corsica, France in 2012 (Ref. 95840). Records from the Canary Islands and Cape Verde are unsubstantiated (Ref. 5222).

Length at first maturity / आकार / वज़न / Age

Maturity: Lm 55.0, range 50 - 60 cm
Max length : 120 cm TL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 5222); common length : 60.0 cm TL पुल्लिंग / अलिंग; (Ref. 26999); अधिकतम प्रकाशित वज़न: 25.0 kg (Ref. 5222)

Short description आकृति विज्ञान | मौरफोमैटरिक्स

पृष्ठीय रीढ़ (सम्पूर्ण): 10 - 11; पृष्ठीय सौफट रेज़ (सम्पूर्ण): 14-16; गुदा कांटा 3; ऐनल सौफट रेज़: 7 - 9. Diagnosis: depth of body less than head length, depth 3.0-3.6 times in SL; head length 2.5-2.9 times in SL; interorbital area convex; preopercle angular, 3.6- large spines at the angle, lowermost directed ventrally; posterior nostril slightly bigger than anterior nostril; maxilla reaches nearly to vertical at rear edge of eye; pelvic fin origin below base of pectoral fins; rounded caudal fin; body scales ctenoid (Ref. 89707).

जीवविज्ञान     शब्द संग्रह (उदाहरणार्थ epibenthic)

Adults are found on rocky or mud-sand bottom; juveniles have been taken in coastal lagoons and estuaries (Ref. 5222, 57293). In the west African waters, diet comprise of fishes (58%), stomatopods (21%), crabs (10%), and cephalopods (10%). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite. The seasonal migration of the species off the coast of Senegal is influenced by the seasonal upwelling off Senegal and Mauritania. Utilized fresh and smoked (Ref. 9987). Highly esteemed in the market of West Africa (Ref. 5377).

Life cycle and mating behavior परिपक्व अवधि | पुनरुत्पत्ति | मछलीऔ का अंडे देना | अंडे | Fecundity | लार्वा

Most females change sex at about 9 kg, but smaller males (of 3 to 5 kg) are occasionally found. Total potential fecundity was estimated to range from 789,436 ova in a 44 cm SL fish of 2.2 kg to 12,589,242 ova in a 87 cm SL fish of 12.6 kg. In Tunisia, sex change occurs at 10 to 13 years (6 to 15 kg, 80 to 110 cm TL).

Main reference Upload your references | संदर्भ | संयोजक : Heemstra, Phillip C. | सहयोगीयो

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)

  Near Threatened (NT) (A2bd); Date assessed: 18 November 2016

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

मात्स्यिकी: व्यापारिक; जलीयकृषि: प्रयोगात्मक; आखेट मत्स्य: हां
FAO - मात्स्यिकी: landings, species profile; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | Sea Around Us

अधिक जानकारी

आम नाम
उपशब्द
चपायचय
परभक्षी
ईकोटोकसीकोलौजी
पुनरुत्पत्ति
परिपक्व अवधि
मछलीऔ का अंडे देना
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
अंडे
Egg development
संदर्भ
जलीयकृषि
जलीयकृषि रूपरेखा
खींच
आनुवंशिकी
ऐल्लि आवृतियाँ
हैरेटिबिलटी
बीमारी
प्रक्रमण
Nutrients
Mass conversion
सहयोगीयो
तस्वीरे
Stamps, Coins Misc.
ध्वनि
सिगुयटिरा
रफ्तार
तैरने के प्रकार
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साधन

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इंटरनेट स्रोत

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 14.8 - 20.2, mean 17.1 °C (based on 122 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00984 - 0.01279), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.59 se; based on food items.
लौटाव (Ref. 120179):  माध्यम, न्यूनतम जनसंख्या दुगनी होने का समय 1.4 - 4.4 वर्ष। (K=0.15-0.25; tm=5-7; tmax=17; Fec>1 million).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 40.7 [17.2, 107.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.13 [0.48, 2.41] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [15.9, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.577 [0.260, 1.282] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.6 [14.1, 98.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27.5 [5.5, 133.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.966 [0.523, 1.798] mg/100g (wet weight);