Epinephelus aeneus, White grouper : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish
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Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817)

White grouper
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Epinephelus aeneus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus aeneus (White grouper)
Epinephelus aeneus
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Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes(Genus, Soort(en)) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien; brakwater demersaal; oceanodroom (Ref. 51243); diepteverspreiding 20 - 200 m (Ref. 3589). Subtropical; 39°N - 16°S, 17°W - 60°E (Ref. 54435)

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: along the west coast of Africa to southern Angola (Ref. 5222, 57293), including the southern Mediterranean (Ref. 5222). First record from Corsica, France in 2012 (Ref. 95840). Records from the Canary Islands and Cape Verde are unsubstantiated (Ref. 5222).

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm 55.0, range 50 - 60 cm
Max length : 120 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 5222); common length : 60.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 26999); Maximaal gepubliceerd gewicht: 25.0 kg (Ref. 5222)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 10 - 11; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 14-16; Anale stekels 3; Anale zachte stralen: 7 - 9. Diagnosis: depth of body less than head length, depth 3.0-3.6 times in SL; head length 2.5-2.9 times in SL; interorbital area convex; preopercle angular, 3.6- large spines at the angle, lowermost directed ventrally; posterior nostril slightly bigger than anterior nostril; maxilla reaches nearly to vertical at rear edge of eye; pelvic fin origin below base of pectoral fins; rounded caudal fin; body scales ctenoid (Ref. 89707).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Adults are found on rocky or mud-sand bottom; juveniles have been taken in coastal lagoons and estuaries (Ref. 5222, 57293). In the west African waters, diet comprise of fishes (58%), stomatopods (21%), crabs (10%), and cephalopods (10%). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite. The seasonal migration of the species off the coast of Senegal is influenced by the seasonal upwelling off Senegal and Mauritania. Utilized fresh and smoked (Ref. 9987). Highly esteemed in the market of West Africa (Ref. 5377).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Most females change sex at about 9 kg, but smaller males (of 3 to 5 kg) are occasionally found. Total potential fecundity was estimated to range from 789,436 ova in a 44 cm SL fish of 2.2 kg to 12,589,242 ova in a 87 cm SL fish of 12.6 kg. In Tunisia, sex change occurs at 10 to 13 years (6 to 15 kg, 80 to 110 cm TL).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Medewerkers

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 125652)

  Bijna bedreigd (NT) (A2bd); Date assessed: 18 November 2016

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Harmless





Gebruik door de mens

Visserij: commercieel; Aquacultuur: experimenteel; vis voor de hengelsport: ja
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Meer informatie

Populaire namen
Synoniemen
Metabolisme
Predators
Ecotoxicologie
Voortplanting
Geslachtsrijpheid
Kuitschieten
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eieren
Ontwikkeling van de eieren
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Internet-bronnen

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Bekijk FishWatcher gegevens | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Genus, Soort(en) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Visserij: landings, soortsprofiel; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genoom, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Nationale databanken | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Publieke aquaria | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: ga naar, zoek | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 14.8 - 20.2, mean 17.1 °C (based on 122 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00984 - 0.01279), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (K=0.15-0.25; tm=5-7; tmax=17; Fec>1 million).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 40.7 [17.2, 107.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.13 [0.48, 2.41] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [15.9, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.577 [0.260, 1.282] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.6 [14.1, 98.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27.5 [5.5, 133.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.966 [0.523, 1.798] mg/100g (wet weight);