Epinephelus aeneus, White grouper : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish
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Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817)

White grouper
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Epinephelus aeneus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Epinephelus aeneus (White grouper)
Epinephelus aeneus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) 鱸形目 (Groupers) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 20 - 200 m (Ref. 3589). 亞熱帶的; 39°N - 16°S, 17°W - 60°E (Ref. 54435)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: along the west coast of Africa to southern Angola (Ref. 5222, 57293), including the southern Mediterranean (Ref. 5222). First record from Corsica, France in 2012 (Ref. 95840). Records from the Canary Islands and Cape Verde are unsubstantiated (Ref. 5222).
東大西洋: 沿著到安哥拉南部的非洲西岸,包括地中海南部。 記錄從加納利群島與維德角是未證實的。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 55.0, range 50 - 60 cm
Max length : 120 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5222); common length : 60.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 26999); 最大體重: 25.0 kg (Ref. 5222)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 10 - 11; 背的軟條 (總數): 14-16; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 7 - 9. Diagnosis: depth of body less than head length, depth 3.0-3.6 times in SL; head length 2.5-2.9 times in SL; interorbital area convex; preopercle angular, 3.6- large spines at the angle, lowermost directed ventrally; posterior nostril slightly bigger than anterior nostril; maxilla reaches nearly to vertical at rear edge of eye; pelvic fin origin below base of pectoral fins; rounded caudal fin; body scales ctenoid (Ref. 89707).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults are found on rocky or mud-sand bottom; juveniles have been taken in coastal lagoons and estuaries (Ref. 5222, 57293). In the west African waters, diet comprise of fishes (58%), stomatopods (21%), crabs (10%), and cephalopods (10%). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite. The seasonal migration of the species off the coast of Senegal is influenced by the seasonal upwelling off Senegal and Mauritania. Utilized fresh and smoked (Ref. 9987). Highly esteemed in the market of West Africa (Ref. 5377).

成魚棲息於岩石的或泥-沙底部; 稚魚曾經採自岸邊潟湖與河口。 在西方中非洲水域, 食性魚 (58%) ,口足目甲殼類 (21%) ,螃蟹 (10%) 與頭足類動物 (10%) 包含. 它是一個雌性先熟的雌雄同體。 此魚種的季節性遷移外海的塞內加爾的海岸被影響藉由季節性的湧升流塞內加爾外海與茅利塔尼亞。 燻製或新鮮使用.(參考文獻 9987) 在非洲西方部的市場中深受喜愛的。 (參考文獻 5377)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Most females change sex at about 9 kg, but smaller males (of 3 to 5 kg) are occasionally found. Total potential fecundity was estimated to range from 789,436 ova in a 44 cm SL fish of 2.2 kg to 12,589,242 ova in a 87 cm SL fish of 12.6 kg. In Tunisia, sex change occurs at 10 to 13 years (6 to 15 kg, 80 to 110 cm TL).東大西洋: 沿著到安哥拉南部的非洲西岸,包括地中海南部。 記錄從加納利群島與維德角是未證實的。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 125652)

  近危 (NT) (A2bd); Date assessed: 18 November 2016

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 實驗的; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO - 漁業: landings, 魚種描繪; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | 周邊海洋

更多資訊

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成熟度
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孕卵數

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Otoliths
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網路資源

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 檢查 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - 漁業: landings, 魚種描繪; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因組, 核甘 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 國家資料庫 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公眾的水族館 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 樹狀分類階層 | Wikipedia: , 搜尋 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 動物學的記錄

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 14.8 - 20.2, mean 17.1 °C (based on 122 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00984 - 0.01279), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.59 se; based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.15-0.25; tm=5-7; tmax=17; Fec>1 million).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Moderate vulnerability (45 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 40.7 [17.2, 107.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.13 [0.48, 2.41] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [15.9, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.577 [0.260, 1.282] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.6 [14.1, 98.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27.5 [5.5, 133.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.966 [0.523, 1.798] mg/100g (wet weight);