Oncorhynchus clarkii, Cutthroat trout : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Oncorhynchus clarkii (Richardson, 1836)

Cutthroat trout
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Oncorhynchus clarkii   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Female picture by Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Oncorhynchus: Greek, onyx, -ychos = nail + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335);  clarkii: Named after William Clark, leader of the Lewis and Clark expedition (Ref. 1998).  More on author: Richardson.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 27547); 深度上下限 0 - 200 m (Ref. 50610).   溫帶; ? - 23°C (Ref. 12741); 61°N - 40°N

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Eastern Pacific: northern parts of Prince William Sound, Alaska, south to the Eel River in northern California, USA and is found in most streams emptying into the Pacific.

Widely introduced into various streams and lakes within its natural range, as well as into a few lakes in eastern North America. In some streams it may be the most numerous sport fish present, while other streams support only small populations. At least 14 subspecies have been historically recognized (Ref. 5723).
東太平洋: 聲音威廉王子的北部 , 阿拉斯加州, 南至在美國北加州中的鰻魚河而且被發現於流入太平洋的大多數的溪流。 廣泛地引入各種不同的溪流與它的原來的分佈範圍裡面的湖中了, 以及進入一些湖之內在北美洲東部中。 在一些溪流中,它可能是最很多的垂釣用魚存在的, 然而其他的溪流支撐只有小的族群。 至少 14 亞種在歷史上曾經辨認出。 (參考文獻 5723)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?, range 15 - 18 cm
Max length : 99.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 12204); 最大体重: 18.6 kg (Ref. 9988); 最大年龄: 10 年 (Ref. 3221)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 8-11; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 8 - 12. Color is variable. Generally dark green to greenish-blue on back, olive-green on upper flank, silvery on lower flank and belly; flanks spots below lateral line are more numerous anteriorly; irregular spots on dorsal, adipose and caudal fins and the anal, pectoral and pelvic fin bases; gill covers are pinkish. Those found at sea or recent migrants to freshwater are silvery with a bluish back, yellowish lower flanks and fins, and sparse spots.
色彩是可变的。 通常深绿色的到蓝绿色的背面, 橄榄绿色的在上面的侧面上, 银色的在侧面下部与腹面上; 侧面斑点在侧线下前面地是众多的; 不规则的斑点背部的之上, 脂鳍与尾鳍与臀鳍,胸鳍与腹鳍基底; 鳃盖是略带桃色的。 那些发现于海洋或淡水的最近移居者是银色的有一个蓝色的背面,淡黄色的侧面下部与鳍 , 与稀疏的斑点。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Prefers relatively small streams, with gravel bottoms and gentle gradients. Spawning adults migrate from the sea into streams to spawn (Ref. 27547). The young fish usually stay in the stream for a year or two before entering the sea, but some populations never got to sea at all. In rare cases, some individuals of sea-going populations, may remain in fresh water for as long as eight years (Ref. 28866, 28869). Feeds on small fishes, crustaceans, and insects (Ref. 4925). The flesh is orange-red and of excellent flavor (Ref. 27547). Utilized fresh and eaten fried, broiled, and baked (Ref. 9988). This species does not compete well with other fish, tends to hybridize, and is unable to withstand fishing pressure = depletion of stocks.

偏爱相当小的溪流, 有砾石的底部与温和的坡度。 产卵的成鱼移动距离海洋进入溪流到之内产卵.(参考文献 27547) 幼鱼鱼通常在进入海洋之前停留在为一或两年的水流中,但是一些族群从不根本到达了海洋。 在少数情形下,往海洋回游族群的一些个体, 可能逗留在淡水长达八年。 (参考文献 28866,28869) 吃小鱼,甲壳动物与昆虫。 (参考文献 4925) 肉是橘红色的与优良滋味.(参考文献 27547) 生鲜使用与油炸后食用, 烤的与烘乾的.(参考文献 9988) 这种不会竞争很好与其它的在一起鱼, 倾向杂交, 而且不能够抵抗 fishing pressure= depletion of stocks。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Spawning occurs both daytime and nighttime. The female selects a site and builds a redd while the male courts her and drives away other males. Upon completion of the redd, the female settles into the pitt, immediately followed by the male. The pair releases eggs and sperm simultaneously and the eggs fall into the spaces between the gravel. The female then moves to the upstream edge of the redd and resumes digging, thereby covering the eggs. When completely covered, the female may use the new redd to spawn once more or she may look for another spot and repeat the entire process. Both males and females spawn with one or more members of the opposite sex (Ref. 12204, 27547). Reproductive strategy: synchronous ovarian organization, determinate fecundity (Ref. 51846).東太平洋: 聲音威廉王子的北部 , 阿拉斯加州, 南至在美國北加州中的鰻魚河而且被發現於流入太平洋的大多數的溪流。 廣泛地引入各種不同的溪流與它的原來的分佈範圍裡面的湖中了, 以及進入一些湖之內在北美洲東部中。 在一些溪流中,它可能是最很多的垂釣用魚存在的, 然而其他的溪流支撐只有小的族群。 至少 14 亞種在歷史上曾經辨認出。 (參考文獻 5723)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Coad, B.W., 1995. Encyclopedia of Canadian fishes. Canadian Museum of Nature and Canadian Sportfishing Productions Inc. Singapore. (Ref. 12204)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  不评价 

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 公众的水族馆
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
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生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.1 - 9.7, mean 8.1 °C (based on 81 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00713 - 0.01166), b=3.02 (2.97 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.56 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=2-3; tmax=10; Fec=226).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.