Oncorhynchus clarkii, Cutthroat trout : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Oncorhynchus clarkii (Richardson, 1836)

Cutthroat trout
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Oncorhynchus clarkii   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)
Oncorhynchus clarkii
Female picture by Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) 鮭形目 (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) 鮭科 (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Oncorhynchus: Greek, onyx, -ychos = nail + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335);  clarkii: Named after William Clark, leader of the Lewis and Clark expedition (Ref. 1998).  More on author: Richardson.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 27547); 深度上下限 0 - 200 m (Ref. 50610).   溫帶; ? - 23°C (Ref. 12741); 61°N - 40°N

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Eastern Pacific: northern parts of Prince William Sound, Alaska, south to the Eel River in northern California, USA and is found in most streams emptying into the Pacific.

Widely introduced into various streams and lakes within its natural range, as well as into a few lakes in eastern North America. In some streams it may be the most numerous sport fish present, while other streams support only small populations. At least 14 subspecies have been historically recognized (Ref. 5723).
東太平洋: 聲音威廉王子的北部 , 阿拉斯加州, 南至在美國北加州中的鰻魚河而且被發現於流入太平洋的大多數的溪流。 廣泛地引入各種不同的溪流與它的原來的分佈範圍裡面的湖中了, 以及進入一些湖之內在北美洲東部中。 在一些溪流中,它可能是最很多的垂釣用魚存在的, 然而其他的溪流支撐只有小的族群。 至少 14 亞種在歷史上曾經辨認出。 (參考文獻 5723)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 15 - 18 cm
Max length : 99.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 12204); 最大體重: 18.6 kg (Ref. 9988); 最大年齡: 10 年 (Ref. 3221)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 8-11; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 8 - 12. Color is variable. Generally dark green to greenish-blue on back, olive-green on upper flank, silvery on lower flank and belly; flanks spots below lateral line are more numerous anteriorly; irregular spots on dorsal, adipose and caudal fins and the anal, pectoral and pelvic fin bases; gill covers are pinkish. Those found at sea or recent migrants to freshwater are silvery with a bluish back, yellowish lower flanks and fins, and sparse spots.
色彩是可變的。 通常深綠色的到藍綠色的背面, 橄欖綠色的在上面的側面上, 銀色的在側面下部與腹面上; 側面斑點在側線下前面地是眾多的; 不規則的斑點背部的之上, 脂鰭與尾鰭與臀鰭,胸鰭與腹鰭基底; 鰓蓋是略帶桃色的。 那些發現於海洋或淡水的最近移居者是銀色的有一個藍色的背面,淡黃色的側面下部與鰭 , 與稀疏的斑點。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Prefers relatively small streams, with gravel bottoms and gentle gradients. Spawning adults migrate from the sea into streams to spawn (Ref. 27547). The young fish usually stay in the stream for a year or two before entering the sea, but some populations never got to sea at all. In rare cases, some individuals of sea-going populations, may remain in fresh water for as long as eight years (Ref. 28866, 28869). Feeds on small fishes, crustaceans, and insects (Ref. 4925). The flesh is orange-red and of excellent flavor (Ref. 27547). Utilized fresh and eaten fried, broiled, and baked (Ref. 9988). This species does not compete well with other fish, tends to hybridize, and is unable to withstand fishing pressure = depletion of stocks.

偏愛相當小的溪流, 有礫石的底部與溫和的坡度。 產卵的成魚移動距離海洋進入溪流到之內產卵.(參考文獻 27547) 幼魚魚通常在進入海洋之前停留在為一或兩年的水流中,但是一些族群從不根本到達了海洋。 在少數情形下,往海洋迴游族群的一些個體, 可能逗留在淡水長達八年。 (參考文獻 28866,28869) 吃小魚,甲殼動物與昆蟲。 (參考文獻 4925) 肉是橘紅色的與優良滋味.(參考文獻 27547) 生鮮使用與油炸後食用, 烤的與烘乾的.(參考文獻 9988) 這種不會競爭很好與其它的在一起魚, 傾向雜交, 而且不能夠抵抗 fishing pressure= depletion of stocks。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawning occurs both daytime and nighttime. The female selects a site and builds a redd while the male courts her and drives away other males. Upon completion of the redd, the female settles into the pitt, immediately followed by the male. The pair releases eggs and sperm simultaneously and the eggs fall into the spaces between the gravel. The female then moves to the upstream edge of the redd and resumes digging, thereby covering the eggs. When completely covered, the female may use the new redd to spawn once more or she may look for another spot and repeat the entire process. Both males and females spawn with one or more members of the opposite sex (Ref. 12204, 27547). Reproductive strategy: synchronous ovarian organization, determinate fecundity (Ref. 51846).東太平洋: 聲音威廉王子的北部 , 阿拉斯加州, 南至在美國北加州中的鰻魚河而且被發現於流入太平洋的大多數的溪流。 廣泛地引入各種不同的溪流與它的原來的分佈範圍裡面的湖中了, 以及進入一些湖之內在北美洲東部中。 在一些溪流中,它可能是最很多的垂釣用魚存在的, 然而其他的溪流支撐只有小的族群。 至少 14 亞種在歷史上曾經辨認出。 (參考文獻 5723)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Coad, B.W., 1995. Encyclopedia of Canadian fishes. Canadian Museum of Nature and Canadian Sportfishing Productions Inc. Singapore. (Ref. 12204)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  未評估 

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

更多資訊

俗名
同種異名
新陳代謝
捕食者
生態毒物學
繁殖
成熟度
產卵場
產卵群集
孕卵數

卵發育
參考文獻
養殖
養殖資訊
品種
遺傳學
基因序列
遺傳率
疾病
加工
Mass conversion
合作者
照片
Stamps, Coins Misc.
聲音
神經毒
速度
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鰓區
Otoliths
腦重體重比
眼睛色素

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.1 - 9.7, mean 8.1 °C (based on 81 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00713 - 0.01166), b=3.02 (2.97 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.56 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=2-3; tmax=10; Fec=226).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.