Coregonus sardinella, Sardine cisco : fisheries, gamefish

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Coregonus sardinella Valenciennes, 1848

Sardine cisco
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Coregonus sardinella   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Coregonus sardinella (Sardine cisco)
Coregonus sardinella
Picture by Runfola, D.M.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) 鮭形目 (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) 鮭科 (Salmonids) > Coregoninae
Etymology: Coregonus: Greek, kore = pupils of the eye + Greek, gonia = angle (Ref. 45335);  sardinella: sardinella meaning small sardine (Ref. 1998).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243).   極; 78°N - 62°N, 45°E - 95°W

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

North America: Murchison River, Canada to Bristol Bay, Alaska; ascends Yukon River to British Columbia, and Mackenzie River to Fort Simpson (Ref. 5723). Asia: Bering Sea, Chukot land and Kolyma River to Kara River on the northern end of the Urals (Ref. 593). Lakes and lower course of large rivers of Arctic Ocean basin from Pechora drainage to eastern Siberia (Ref. 59043). Belongs to Coregonus artedi complex. Occasionally hybridizes with Coregonus nelsoni (Ref. 27547).
北美洲: 在加拿大到布里斯多海灣,阿拉斯加州的 Murchison 河。 亞洲: 到在烏拉河的北方末端上的喀拉海河的白令海, Chukot 土地與科力馬河河.(參考文獻 593) 這種是與 Coregonus albula 同種。 (參考文獻 7506) 屬於 Coregonus artedi 複合體。 偶然地與 Coregonus nelsoni 雜交。 (參考文獻 27547)

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 47.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5723); common length : 23.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 1998); 最大體重: 555.00 g (Ref. 593); 最大年齡: 26 年 (Ref. 1998)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 12-14; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 10 - 13; 脊椎骨: 58 - 64. Body elongate, somewhat compressed laterally, greatest body depth at front of dorsal fin. Head about 19 - 24 % of total length; eyes large; snout length usually less than eye diameter; mouth moderate, terminal, lower jaw always protruding, maxillary at a distinct angle, extending posteriorly to below anterior half of the eye; a small cluster of teeth present on the tongue. Overall coloration silvery, usually brown to dark green on the back, becoming silvery on sides and below. The small non-anadromous form that remains in fresh water is without spotting on the back and only the pelvic fins have black pigment on the tips., the remaining fins are unpigmented. The larger, anadromous form has dark spots on the head, back, dorsal, and adipose fins, and sometimes, on the pectoral fins; all fins have usually dark pigment on the tips.
細長的身體, 略微扁長形的側面地, 在背鰭的前面最大的體高。 頭部大約 19- 24% 的全長; 眼大的; 吻的長度通常少於眼直徑; 嘴中等的﹐末端的, 下頜總是伸出, 上頜骨以一個明顯的角, 向後延伸到在前半部的之下眼; 齒的小群位於舌之上。 整體的顏色銀色的, 通常褐色到深綠色的在背部上, 變成銀色的側邊以下之上。 逗留在的小的非溯河洄游產卵的形式淡水是沒有在背部上斑點與只有腹鰭在頂端上有黑色素。, 剩餘的鰭是沒有顏色。 比較大又溯河洄游產卵的形式在頭部,背面上有深色的斑點, 背部的, 與脂肪的鰭, 與有時, 在胸鰭上; 所有的鰭通常有深色的在頂端上。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults occur in coastal waters, estuaries, large lakes and rivers (Ref. 5723). Lake-dwelling populations appear to be non-migratory, while those found in streams or brackish water move considerable distances to reach or leave spawning sites (Ref. 27547). Semi-anadromous populations forage in estuaries, lower courses of rivers, backwaters and lakes (Ref. 59043). Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Feed on planktonic crustaceans and insects (Ref. 1998); also plant material (Ref. 27547) and fishes (Ref. 58426). Do not usually feed during its spawning run (Ref. 28219, 28860, 28861). Migratory forms are observed to live longer than fresh water forms (Ref. 1998). Spawn in deep pools on sand and gravel (Ref. 59043). Flesh is said to be tasty (Ref. 1998).

出現於沿岸水域,河口,大的湖與河。 (參考文獻 5723) 湖居的族群狀似非迴游性而那些發現於溪流.或者半淡鹹水移動相當多的距離達到或者離開產卵區。 (參考文獻 27547) 沿海-大洋性.(參考文獻 58426) 吃浮游性甲殼動物與昆蟲;(參考文獻 1998) 也植物 (參考文獻 27547) 與魚.(參考文獻 58426) 在它的產卵的溪流的時候通常不進食。 (參考文獻 28219,28860,28861) 迴游的型式被觀察活的較長勝於淡水的型式。 (參考文獻 1998) 肉據說好吃的.(參考文獻 1998)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawning occurs at night, peaking between 8 pm and midnight. A female spawns almost vertically upward, with her ventral side upstream. She is joined by as many as five males who swim vertically and close to her. As the spawners approach the surface, eggs and milt are released. The fish break the surface, fall over backward, and swim back to the bottom of the pool (Ref. 27547).北美洲: 在加拿大到布里斯多海灣,阿拉斯加州的 Murchison 河。 亞洲: 到在烏拉河的北方末端上的喀拉海河的白令海, Chukot 土地與科力馬河河.(參考文獻 593) 這種是與 Coregonus albula 同種。 (參考文獻 7506) 屬於 Coregonus artedi 複合體。 偶然地與 Coregonus nelsoni 雜交。 (參考文獻 27547)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

更多資訊

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網路資源

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 檢查 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(基因組, 核甘) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | 樹狀分類階層 | Wikipedia(, 搜尋) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | 動物學的記錄

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): -1.8 - 2.7, mean -0.8 °C (based on 1616 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00375 - 0.00557), b=3.20 (3.16 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.40; tm=2-4; tmax=11; Fec=2,500).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.