Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino; distribuzione batimetrica - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 41°N - 40°S, 80°W - 29°W
Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA (Ref. 7251) to Santos, Brazil (Ref. 26340) and Argentina (Ref. 58839). Eastern Atlantic: St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121).
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm WD maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 7251)
Morfologia | Morfometria
Cephalic fins smaller, tail longer without spine (Ref. 7251). Upper surface black (Ref. 6902).
Occurs in shallow coastal waters (Ref. 12951). Feeds mainly on planktonic crustaceans but may take small schooling fishes (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Found singly, in small groups, and in schools (Ref. 12951). Swimming at high speed and often leap high above the surface (Ref. 6902). Feeds mainly on planktonic crustaceans, but also on small schooling fishes (Ref. 114953). Meat used for food and a source of oil (Ref. 6902).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Copulation has been observed to be in a venter to venter position while the pair swims at the surface. Mating reported to last 10 minutes. Litter number 1 (Ref. 12951).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale
Age/SizeAccrescimentoLength-weightLength-lengthLength-frequenciesMorfometriaMorfologiaLarveDinamica popolazioni larvaliReclutamentoAbbondanzaBRUVS
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.7 - 27.7, mean 23.2 °C (based on 232 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.59 se; based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Molto basso, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione più di 14 anni (Fec=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100) .