Esox lucius, Northern pike : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758

Northern pike
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Esox lucius
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Esociformes (Pikes and mudminnows) 狗魚目 (Pikes and mudminnows) > Esocidae (Pikes) 狗魚科 (Pikes)
Etymology: Esox: From Greek, isox and also related with the Celtic root, eog, ehawc = salmon (Ref. 45335);  lucius: lucius which is supposedly the latin name for this species (Ref. 1998).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 大洋性; 河川洄游; 深度上下限 0 - 30 m (Ref. 1998), usually 1 - 5 m (Ref. 1998).   溫帶; 10°C - 28°C (Ref. 12741); 72°N - 37°N, 11°W - 55°W (Ref. 121102)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Circumpolar in fresh water. North America: Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins from Labrador to Alaska and south to Pennsylvania and Nebraska, USA (Ref. 86798). Eurasia: Caspian, Black, Baltic, White, Barents, Arctic, North and Aral Seas and Atlantic basins, southwest to Adour drainage; Mediterranean basin in Rhône drainage and northern Italy. Widely distributed in central Asia and Siberia easward to Anadyr drainage (Bering Sea basin). Historically absent from Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean France, central Italy, southern and western Greece, eastern Adriatic basin, Iceland, western Norway and northern Scotland. Widely introduced and translocated throughout Europe (Ref. 59043). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).
在淡水中的極地附近。 北美洲: 大西洋,北極圈,太平洋, 五大湖與從拉布拉多到阿拉斯加州的密西西比河流域而且南至賓州,密蘇里與內布拉斯加。 歐亞大陸: 法國到西伯利亞東部, 南至義大利北部。 挪威北部與蘇格蘭北部沒有出現。 引入其他的國家中了。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 38.8, range 25 - 63 cm
Max length : 137 cm FL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 40637); 150.0 cm TL (female); common length : 40.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); common length :55 cm TL (female); 最大體重: 28.4 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大體重: 28.4 kg; 最大年齡: 30 年 (Ref. 556)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背的軟條 (總數): 17-25; 臀鰭軟條: 10 - 22; 脊椎骨: 57 - 65. Diagnosed from all other freshwater fishes in Europe by the combination of the following characters: long snout; large mouth; dorsal fin origin slightly in front of anal origin; and lateral line with 105-148 scales (Ref. 59043). Distinguished by its long, flat, 'duck-bill' snout; its large mouth with many large, sharp teeth; and the rearward position of its dorsal and anal fins (Ref. 27547). Gill rakers present only as patches of sharp teeth on gill arches; lateral line notched posteriorly (Ref. 27547). Dorsal located far to the rear; anal located under and arising a little behind dorsal; pectorals low on body, base under opercle; pelvic fins low on body; paired fins rounded, paddle-shaped (Ref. 27547). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196).
區別的特徵為它的長﹐平坦的,'鴨子-嘴' 吻; 它的大嘴巴有許多大又銳利的齒; 而且它的背鰭與臀鰭的向後方位置.(參考文獻 27547) 有鰓耙只當作區塊銳利地牙齒在鰓弓; 側線在後部地凹槽。 (參考文獻 27547) 背部的位於遠的到後面; 肛門的位置在出現下面而且在背鰭稍後方; 胸鰭在身體上的低處, 在鰓蓋下面的基底; 腹鰭在身體上的低處; 偶鰭圓的, 槳狀的.(參考文獻 27547) 尾鰭有 19個鰭條。 (參考文獻 2196)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs in clear vegetated lakes, quiet pools and backwaters of creeks and small to large rivers (Ref. 5723, 86798). Usually solitary and highly territorial. Enters brackish water in the Baltic. Adults feed mainly on fishes, but at times feed heavily on frogs and crayfish (Ref. 27547). Cannibalism is common. In arctic lakes, it is sometimes the only species present in a given water body. In such cases, juveniles feed on invertebrates and terrestrial vertebrates; large individuals are mainly cannibals (Ref. 59043). Cannibalistic as juveniles (Ref. 30578). Feces of pike are avoided by other fish because they contain alarm pheromones. Deposits feces at specific locations, distant from its foraging area (Ref. 59043). Eggs and young are preyed upon by fishes, aquatic insect larvae, birds, and aquatic mammals (Ref. 1998). Does not generally undertake long migrations, but a few may move considerable distances (Ref. 27547). Oviparous (Ref. 205). This fish can be heavily infested with parasites, including the broad tapeworm which, if not killed by thorough cooking, can infect human; is used as an intermediate host by a cestode parasite which results to large losses in usable catches of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in some areas; also suffers from a trematode which causes unsightly cysts on the skin (Ref. 9988). Excellent food fish; utilized fresh and frozen; eaten pan-fried, broiled, and baked (Ref. 9988). Valuable game fish (Ref. 5723). In spite of numerous attempts to culture this species, it was never entirely domesticated and does not accept artificial food (Ref. 30578). Locally impacted by habitat alterations (Ref. 59043).

出現於小溪與小型到大型河川的清澈長滿植物的湖泊,靜止的池水與洄水區。 (參考文獻 5723) 通常獨居性與高度具有領域性。 在波羅的海中進入半淡鹹水。 成魚主要捕食魚,但是偶而吃經常捕食青蛙與小龍蝦。 (參考文獻 27547) 同類相食的稚魚時.(參考文獻 30578) 卵與幼魚被魚,水生的昆蟲幼生,鳥與水生的哺乳動物捕食。 (參考文獻 1998) 不會通常進行長距離的迴游, 但是一些可能移動相當多的距離.(參考文獻 27547) 卵生的.(參考文獻 205) 這一個魚能很重地與寄生蟲一起騷擾, 包括寬的條蟲, 如果不殺被完全烹飪,能傳染人類; 被製成條蟲的一個中間寄主對湖白鯨 ( Coregonus clupeaformis) 的可使用捕獲的大失敗在一些地區產生的寄生蟲; 也蒙受在皮膚上不檢查地引起包囊的一個吸蟲。 (參考文獻 9988) 優良的食用魚; 生鮮利用與冷凍; 吃油鍋炸的, 烤的與烘乾的.(參考文獻 9988) 有價值的遊釣魚類.(參考文獻 5723) 儘管很多的嘗試養殖這種, 它完全地從不被養馴而且不會接受人造的食物.(參考文獻 30578)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawners move inshore or upstream to the marsh areas to spawn (Ref. 27547). Generally, spawning occurs during the day. The sexes pair and a larger female is usually attended by one or two smaller males. They swim through and over the vegetation in water usually less than 17.8 cm, releasing eggs and sperm simultaneously at irregular intervals (Ref. 1998). Eggs are deposited in flooded areas and on submerged vegetation over a period of 2-5 days (Ref. 59043). Only 5 to 60 eggs ae released at a time (Ref. 27547). This act is repeated every few minutes for up to several hours, after which the fish rest for some time before resuming. During the resting period, both male and female may take new mates, or they may continue together for several days until all eggs are extruded. Spawned-out adults may stay on the spawning grounds for as long as 14 weeks, but most leave within 6 (Ref. 27547).在淡水中的極地附近。 北美洲: 大西洋,北極圈,太平洋, 五大湖與從拉布拉多到阿拉斯加州的密西西比河流域而且南至賓州,密蘇里與內布拉斯加。 歐亞大陸: 法國到西伯利亞東部, 南至義大利北部。 挪威北部與蘇格蘭北部沒有出現。 引入其他的國家中了。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Crossman, E.J., 1996. Taxonomy and distribution. p. 1-11. In J.F. Craig (ed.) Pike biology and exploration. Chapman and Hall, London. 298 p. (Ref. 26373)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 December 2011

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  潛能有害之物





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5157   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00384 - 0.00496), b=3.09 (3.05 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 7.2 (5.8 - 8.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 41 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.07-0.3; tm=2-3; tmax=30; Fec=2,000-600,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.