Gymnura altavela, Spiny butterfly ray : fisheries, gamefish

Gymnura altavela (Linnaeus, 1758)

Spiny butterfly ray
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This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Gymnura altavela   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Gymnura altavela (Spiny butterfly ray)
Gymnura altavela
Picture by Flescher, D.

Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes(Gattung, Arten) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (Haie und Rochen) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Gymnuridae (Butterfly rays)
Etymology: Gymnura: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ökologie

; seewasser; brackwasser demersal; tiefenbereich 5 - 100 m (Ref. 6808).   Subtropical; 47°N - 39°S, 98°W - 42°E

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: southern New England, USA, Brazil (Ref. 7251) to Argentina (Ref. 58839). Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Ambriz, Angola (including the Mediterranean, Black Sea, and the Madeira and Canary islands).

Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 400 cm WD Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 3709); common length : 200 cm WD Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 3709); max. veröff. Gewicht: 60.0 kg (Ref. 4699)

Kurzbeschreibung Morphologie | Morphometrie

Tail short armed with spine. Disk very broad. Very low dorsal and ventral finfolds on tail (Ref. 7251). Disk dark brown to grayish, lower surface of disc and of pelvic fins white, brownish, rosy or rusty cast. Tail white or rosy white below (Ref. 6902).

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

Maximum length measured is 140 cm (Ref. 5377). Occurs over sand and mud. Feeds on fishes, crustaceans, mollusks and plankton. Ovoviviparous, gestation lasting about 6 months with 4 to 7 embryos produced per female (Ref. 6676).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator : McEachran, John | Partner

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Raies et autres batoides. p. 845-886. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identificationpour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Mèditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3261)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 123251)

  gefährdet, siehe IUCN Red List (VU) (A2bd+4bd); Date assessed: 01 March 2007

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

  Harmless





Nutzung durch Menschen

Fischereien: weniger kommerziell; Sportfisch: ja
FAO - Fischereien: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet Quellen

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | FishWatcher Einträge suchen | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Gattung, Arten | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Fischereien: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: Genom, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Nationale Datenbanken | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Gehe zu, Suchen | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 14.9 - 27.8, mean 23.6 °C (based on 860 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00631 - 0.02292), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 120179):  sehr niedrig, Verdopplung der Population dauert mehr als 14 Jahre. (Fec 4-7).
Verwundbarkeit (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
Preiskategorie (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 21.4 [3.5, 73.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.819 [0.231, 2.455] mg/100g ; Protein = 21.6 [18.6, 24.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.523 [0.163, 1.570] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.7 [7.3, 113.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.55 [1.92, 21.46] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.46 [0.22, 1.02] mg/100g (wet weight);